Vol 89, No 8 (2017)

Editorial
Molecular genetic predictors of resistance to anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy
Maev I.V., Andreev D.N.
Abstract
In current clinical practice, there is no optimal empirical therapy for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and there is a progressive decrease in the efficiency of classical eradication therapy (ET) regimens. The variability in the efficiency of ET in a specific patient is largely due to the heterogeneous molecular genetic mechanisms underlying the resistance of the microorganism to the components of the treatment regimens. The basis of the mechanisms for antibiotic resistance in H. pylori is mainly the point mutations in some genes, which determine alterations in the mechanisms of action of drugs, such as clarithromycin (domain V of 23S rRNA), metronidazole (rdxA, frxA), amoxicillin (pbp1A), tetracycline (16S rRNA), and levofloxacin (gyrA). The predictors of resistance to ET are also the CagA-negative status of the microorganism and the presence of the vacA s2 allele. There are a number of host genetic determinants (the CYP2C19 genotype (*1/*1, *1/*17, *17/*17) and the MDR1 3435 T/T genotype (in an Asian population)) that reduce the efficiency of ET, by altering the pharmacokinetics of proton pump inhibitors. In addition, the IL-1β-511 C/C polymorphism that affects gastric acid secretion is a predictor of the inefficiency of ET.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(8):5-12
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Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in patients with asthma: Results of a prospective study
Kozlova Y.I., Frolova E.V., Filippova L.V., Uchevatkina A.E., Aak O.V., Klimko N.N.
Abstract
Aim. To estimate the frequency of fungal sensitization and the incidence of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in asthmatic patients. Subjects and methods. A total of 140 asthmatic patients were examined. They underwent allergologic (skin tests for fungal allergens, estimation of total and fungal allergen-specific IgE levels) and mycological (microscopy and inoculation of respiratory biosubstrates) examinations. Chest computed tomography, when indicated, was done. A group of patients with ABPA and that of patients with severe asthma and fungal sensitization were identified. Results. The frequency of fungal sensitization in asthmatic patients was 36%; the main allergenic fungi were Aspergillus and Alternaria. The incidence of ABPA was as high as 4% in the patients with asthma and 11% in those with severe asthma and fungal sensitization. Conclusion. The given current diagnostic criteria will assist practitioners to identify ABPA, to prevent its progression, and to initiate specific anti-inflammatory and antifungal therapy in due time.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(8):13-16
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Analysis of the efficiency of antimicrobial treatment for community-acquired pneumonia in clinical practice
Zhukova O.V., Ruina O.V., Kononova S.V., Konyshkina T.M.
Abstract
Aim. To analyze actual drug consumption based on the defined daily dose (DDD analysis) and to analyze the utilization of drugs based on their proportion of the total defined daily doses (DU90% analysis) for the antimicrobial therapy of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in clinical practice at a hospital in Russia. Materials and methods. The investigation materials were the data of 117 case histories of male (51.3%) and female (48.7%) patients hospitalized with CAP at Nizhny Novgorod City Clinical Hospital Five in 2015. The investigation enrolled all the patients admitted to the hospital over the analyzed period. DDD analysis and DU90% analysis were used as study methods. Results. DDD analysis and DU90% analysis of antimicrobial therapy for CAP were carried out at the hospital in clinical practice during a year. The annual number of defined daily doses (NDDD) for antimicrobial drugs, the number of defined daily doses per 100 bed-days (NDDD/100 bed-days), and a drug load (g) per 1000 CAP patients per day and per CAP patient per year were determined. The largest NDDD/year for CAP treatment with ceftriaxone was 376 g, or 43.43 NDDD/100 bed-days, which is much higher than that with other antimicrobial agents. The daily drug load of ceftriaxone per 1,000 CAP patients was 8.8 g, which exceeds that of moxifloxacin by 18.7 times, azithromycin and levofloxacin by 5 times, and ampicillin/sulbactam by 2.3 times. The daily drug load of ceftriaxone per CAP patient was 3.2 g, which exceeds that of of ampicillin/sulbactam by 2.3 times, levofloxacin and azithromycin by 5 times, and moxifloxacin by 19 times. Conclusion. It may be recommended that the proportion of cephalosporins as drugs that promote the rise of resistance in microbes and their production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases should be further limited, the proportion of penicillins be extended, and the administered ampicillin/sulbactam be added, for example, by amoxicillin/clavulanate. Penicillins contribute to the rise of resistance to a lesser degree, and the use of two different penicillin molecules specified in the guidelines for the treatment of CAP will be able to slow the process further. By the same reasoning, it is also advisable to use cefuroxime (second-generation cephalosporins) along with ceftriaxone in patients in stable condition, without impairing vital functions.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(8):17-21
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Efficiency of triple antihypertensive therapy in patients with uncontrolled hypertension and depressive disorders
Skibitsky V.V., Fendrikova A.V., Skibitsky A.V.
Abstract
Aim. To evaluate the efficiency of triple antihypertensive therapy in patients with uncontrolled hypertension and depressive disorders (DD). Materials and methods. 153 patients with uncontrolled hypertension were examined, of whom 82 patients were diagnosed with mild and moderate DD. A combination of perindopril 10 mg/day, indapamide SR 1.5 mg/day, and amlodipine at an initial dose of 5 mg/day was given to patients with hypertension and DD. After 4 weeks of treatment, if target blood pressure (BP) levels could not be achieved, the dose of amlodipine was increased up to 10 mg/day. General clinical examination and 24-hour BP monitoring (BPM) were performed in all the patients at baseline and in the patients with DD also after 24 weeks of therapy. The traditional measures of the diurnal BP profile, as well as the parameters characterizing arterial stiffness and central aortic pressure (CAP) were estimated. Results. After 8 weeks of therapy, target BP levels were recorded in 63 (76.8%) patients. After 24 weeks of treatment, the hypertensive patients with DD showed significant positive changes in all the investigated 24-hour BPM parameters and normalization of the diurnal BP profile in 65.1% of cases. During the treatment, there were significant decreases in pulse wave velocity, brachial arterial and aortic augmentation indices, aortic systolic and diastolic pressures, and mean aortic BP and an increase in the velocity of the reflected wave. Conclusion. Triple therapy, including perindopril, indapamide SR, and amlodipine, contributed to the achievement of target BP levels in the majority of hypertensive patients with DD, with significant positive changes in all 24-hour BPM parameters, optimization of the diurnal BP profile in most patients, clinically significant improvement of the parameters that characterize arterial stiffness and CAP.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(8):22-28
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Effect of a fixed-dose combination of perindopril arginine/amlodipine on the level and variability of blood pressure according to its office visit-to-visit measurements and self-measurements at home: A subanalysis of the PREVOSHODSTVO (SUPERIORITY) program
Ostroumova O.D.
Abstract
Aim. To study the effect of a fixed-dose combination of perindopril arginine/amlodipine (prestans) on the goal levels and variability of blood pressure (BP) according to its office visit-to-visit measurements and self-measurement (OVVM and SM) in a subgroup of 483 people from the population of the Russian observational SUPERIORITY program, most cases of whom are given the combination replacing the previously ineffective mono- and combination antihypertensive therapy (AHT). Subjects and methods. The subanalysis included data on 483 patients (34% men) aged 57.9±10.8 years with uncontrolled hypertension, who were both untreated and treated with antihypertensive mono- or combination therapy using a free or fixed-dose combination of 2—3 antihypertensive drugs and in whom the physicians decided to use prestans to correct AHT. The follow-up period was 24 weeks. Results. At the end of the investigation, the patients received prestans in the following doses: 5/5 mg (34% of the patients), 10/5 mg (39.5%), 5/10 mg (3.9%), and 10/10 mg (22%). In the analyzed patient group, the baseline BP was 160.8±8.8/92.6±7.4 mm Hg and dropped to 125.9±7.9/77.8±5.0 mm Hg at 24 weeks (p<0.001). According to SM, the morning BP significantly decreased from 147.0±13.3/85.6±7.2 to 127.5±8.3/78,9±5.6 mm Hg at 24 weeks (p<0.001). The evening BP readings showed the similar trends. Target BP was achieved in 93 and 78% of the patients, as shown by OVVM and SM, respectively. According to SCM, the day-to-day variability of BP significantly decreased from 5.1±3.2/3.4±2.3 Hg mm at Visit 2 to 2.7±2/0/2,3±1/5 mm Hg at Visit 5 (p<0.001). Conclusion. The use of the fixed-dose combination of perindopril arginine/amlodipine in hypertensive patients just at the beginning of treatment, by switching from insufficiently effective mono- or combination AHT to the fixed-dose combination of perindopril arginine/amlodipine, is an effective way to optimize AHT in clinical practice, which lowers the BP level and variability, as evidenced by both OVVM and SM.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(8):29-36
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Analysis of the clinical efficiency of eradication therapy in patients with coronary heart disease associated with gastroduodenal pathology
Simonova Z.G., Martusevich A.K., Tarlovskaya E.I.
Abstract
Aim. To comparatively analyze the clinical efficiency of eradiation therapy (ET) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) concurrent with gastroduodenal pathology (GDP). Subjects and methods. The study was conducted in three steps. In Step 1, 1588 patients with chronic CHD were examined. In Step 2, the characteristics of the course of CHD concurrent with Helicobacter pylori-associated GDP in 147 patients with these conditions compared to the same number of CHD patients without GDP. In Step 3, the impact of a GDP treatment option on the efficiency of treatment was investigated in the patients with CHD. Group 1 received ET + basic therapy (BT); Group 2 used antisecretory therapy + BT; Group 3 consisted of CHD patients without concomitant GDP who received BT only. The time course of changes in clinical and quality-of-life (QOL) indicators was assessed. Results. The patients with CHD concurrent with GDP have a more severe course of the disease as manifested by deterioration in clinical status and QOL. After ET, anginal attack rates were decreased by 62.6% in Group 1, by 30.7% in Group 2 (during antisecretory therapy), and by 29.5% in Group 3. The level of physical QOL increased by 23.7% in Group 1, which was not observed in Groups 2 and 3. Conclusion. Inclusion of ET in an algorithm for treating CHD patients with GDP promotes the angina stability and normalizes QOL in the patients.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(8):37-42
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Correction of small bowel function as a new direction for treating patients with metabolic syndrome
Vakhrushev Y.M., Lyapina M.V.
Abstract
Aim. To provide a rationale for and to evaluate the therapeutic efficiency of the combined use of pancreatic enzymes and actovegin in the combination therapy of patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) on the basis of comprehensive clinical and functional studies of the small bowel (SB). Subjects and methods. In the course of treatment, 120 patients with MS (verified using the diagnostic criteria elaborated by the All-Russian Research Society of Cardiology (2009)) underwent a comprehensive study of SB function: an isolated study of resorptive processes; evaluation of parietal and cavitary digestion, motor-evacuation function. The peripheral blood levels of gastrin, insulin, cortisol, thyroxine and thyrotropin were determined. Results. The combined use of pancreatic enzymes and actovegin has a positive impact on the clinical and functional state of SB, which was manifested as restoration of its hydrolysis and absorption, as well as motor-evacuation function in the patients with MS. The treatment resulted in reductions in the levels of triglycerides from 2.85±0.34 to 1.53±0.18 mmol/l (p<0.01), total cholesterol from 6.08±0.16 to 5.19±0.21 mmol/l (p<0.05), and atherogenic factor from 5.21±0.28 to 2.93±0.34 (p<0.05). Posttreatment HOMA-IR decreased from 4.22±0.8 to 2.12±0.8. There were no substantial changes in insulin levels and insulin resistance index in the patients on standard therapy. Conclusion. The combined use of pancreatic enzymes and actovegin is pathogenetically sound in correcting SB dysfunctions and may be one of the most effective directions for the treatment of patients with MS.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(8):43-49
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Oxidative stress in women with insomnia in different stages of menopause
Kolesnikova L.I., Semenova N.V., Solodova E.I., Madaeva I.M.
Abstract
Aim. To investigate of a lipid peroxidation (LPO) process and the antioxidant defense system (ADS) in peri- and postmenopausal women with insomnia. Subjects and methods. 47 perimenopausal women and 71 postmenopausal ones were examined. Each group was divided into 2 subgroups: 1) individuals with insomnia and 2) controls. LPO-ADS spectrophotometric studies were used in the investigation. Results. There was an increase in the serum levels of ketodienes and conjugated trienes and a decrease in those of α-tocopherol and retinol in postmenopause versus in perimenopause. In insomnia, there was a rise in the level of ketodienes and conjugated trienes in perimenopause; LPO substrates with conjugated double bonds, diene conjugates, and thiobarbituric acid-active products in postmenopause. The indicators of ADS do not differ from those in the controls. The integral indicator of oxidative stress assessment suggests that there is a LPO-ADS imbalance in the menopausal women with insomnia, which is most pronounced in postmenopause. Conclusion. The findings suggest that the patients with insomnia develop oxidative stress that is more marked in postmenopause.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(8):50-56
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Efficiency of immunosuppressive therapy in virus-negative and virus-positive patients with morphologically verified lymphocytic myocarditis
Blagova O.V., Nedostup A.V., Kogan E.A., Sulimov V.A.
Abstract
Aim. To evaluate the efficiency of immunosuppressive therapy (IST) in virus-negative (V–) and virus-positive (V+) patients with lymphocytic myocarditis (LM). Subjects and methods. 60 patients (45 males) (mean age 46.7±11.8 years) with dilated cardiomyopathy (mean left ventricular (LV) end diastolic size (EDS) 6.7±0.7 cm; ejection fraction (EF) 26.2±9.1%) were examined. The diagnosis of active/borderline LM was verified by right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy in 38 patients, by intraoperative LV biopsy in 10, in the study of explanted hearts from 3 patients and at autopsy in 9. The investigators determined the genomes of parvovirus B19, herpes viruses types 1, 2 and 6, Epstein—Barr (EBV), zoster, and cytomegalovirus in the blood and myocardium and, if antibodies were present in the blood, hepatitis B and C viruses, as well as antibodies against antigens in the endothelium, cardiomyocytes and their nuclei, smooth muscles, fibers of the conducting system. IST was used in terms of histological, immune, and viral activities. IST was performed in 22 V+ patients (Group 1) and in 24 V– patients (Group 2); this was not done in 10 V+ patients (Group 3) and V– patients (Group 4). IST comprised methylprednisolone at a mean dose of 24 mg/day (n=40), hydroxychloroquine 200 mg/day (n=20), azathioprine at a mean dose of 150 mg/day (n=21); antiviral therapy included acyclovir, ganciclovir, intravenous immunoglobulin (n=24). The follow-up period was 19 (7.3—40.3) months. Results. The viral genome was detected in the myocardium of 32 patients who made up a V+ group. The degree of histological activity did not differ in relation to the presence of viral genome in the myocardium. The degree of immune activity (anticardiolipin antibody titers) in the V+ patients was as high as that in V– ones. At baseline, the V+ patients had a significantly higher LV EDS and a lower EF than the V– patients. Overall, IST only could lead to a significant increase in EF (from 26.5±0.9 to 36.0±10.8%; p<0.001) and reductions in NYHA functional class from III to II (p<0.001), LV EDS (from 6.7±0.7 to 6.4±0.8 cm; p<0.01), pulmonary artery systolic pressure (from 48.9±15.5 to 39.4±11.5 mm Hg (p<0.01); the IST group had significantly lower mortality rates than the non-IST group (23.9 and 64.3%; p<0.01). At the same time, a significant trend was seen in both V– and V+ patients. The mortality rate in the V+ patients, as a whole, was higher (46.9 and 17.9%; p<0.05). Conclusion. IST leads to a significant improvement of functional indices and it is associated with lower mortality rates in both myocardial V– and V+ patients with LM. A more than 10% EF increase in the first 2 months is associated with a good prognosis. The presence of viral genome in the myocardium (primarily herpesviruses rather than parvovirus-19) is accompanied by more severe initial dysfunction, a less pronounced effect of IST, and higher mortality rates. However, the positive effect of IST also persists in V+ patients. No positive changes (a decrease in EF was observed) were absent only in IST-naïve V+ patients.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(8):57-67
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Uromodulin gene polymorphisms in patients with cast nephropathy in multiple myeloma
Rekhtina I.G., Mendeleeva L.P., Biderman B.V., Solovyev M.V., Sudarikov A.B.
Abstract
Aim. To investigate the nature of mutations in exons 4 and 5 of the uromodulin (UM) gene, including in the area encoding the domain of 8 cysteines (D8C), in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) with the secretion of monoclonal light chains (LC) in cast nephropathy (CN) and without kidney injury. Subjects and methods. The investigation enrolled 24 patients in MM remission, who were observed to have monoclonal LC secretion at onset. Group 1 included 14 patients with CN; Group 2 consisted of 10 patients with normal renal function (a comparison group). The compared groups did not differ in the number of serum and urinary monoclonal LCs. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood samples of patients. The nucleotide sequence of exons 4 and 5 of the UM gene was determined by the Sanger method. Results. No differences were found in the frequency of polymorphisms depending on the severity of kidney injury. The missense mutation p.142R>R/Q in the UM gene, which had not been previously described, was discovered. Conclusion. The patients with MM were not found to have statistically significant differences in the frequency and nature of polymorphisms of exons 4 and 5 in the UM gene, including in the area encoding D8C, in CN without kidney injury.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(8):68-71
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Giant cell arteritis: Genetic and epigenetic aspects
Guliaev S.V., Strizhakov L.A., Novikov P.I., Mukhin N.A., Fomin V.V.
Abstract
The paper describes clinical cases in 2 patients (brothers) with giant cell arteritis. It analyzes the genetic and epigenetic aspects of the disease. The data available in the Russian and foreign literature are given.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(8):72-76
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Late-onset rheumatoid arthritis in a patient with successfully treated IgA nephropathy
Chebotareva N.V., Bobkova I.N., Gulyaev S.V.
Abstract
The paper describes a rare clinical case of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that developed in a patient 9 years after diagnosing IgA nephropathy. Kidney disease was characterized by a stable course with moderate urinary syndrome, hypertension, and reduced renal function. Immunosuppressive therapy using glucocorticosteroids and then mycophenolic acid led to remission of nephritis and recovery of renal function. However, the absence of nephritis activity and discontinuation of immunosuppressants was responsible for articular syndrome. The diagnosis of RA is based on its characteristic radiological patterns and immunological characteristics after ruling out a number of systemic diseases and infections. The common pathogenetic components of IgA nephropathy and RA, including the role of rheumatoid factor IgA, are discussed.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(8):77-79
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The Russian consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of chronic pancreatitis: Enzyme replacement therapy
Khatkov I.E., Maev I.V., Bordin D.S., Kucheryavyi Y.A., Abdulkhakov S.R., Alekseenko S.A., Alieva E.I., Alikhanov R.B., Bakulin I.G., Baranovsky A.Y., Beloborodova E.V., Belousova E.A., Buriev I.M., Bystrovskaya E.V., Vertyankin S.V., Vinokurova L.V., Galperin E.I., Gorelov A.V., Grinevich V.B., Danilov M.V., Darvin V.V., Dubtsova E.A., Dyuzheva T.G., Egorov V.I., Efanov M.G., Zakharova N.V., Zagainov V.E., Ivashkin V.T., Izrailov R.E., Korochanskaya N.V., Kornienko E.A., Korobka V.L., Kokhanenko N.Y., Livzan M.A., Loranskaya I.D., Nikolskaya K.A., Osipenko M.F., Okhlobystin A.V., Pasechnikov V.D., Plotnikova E.Y., Polyakova S.I., Sablin O.A., Simanenkov V.I., Ursova N.I., Tsvirkun V.V., Tsukanov V.V., Shabunin A.V.
Abstract
Pancreatology Club Professional Medical Community, 1A.S. Loginov Moscow Clinical Research and Practical Center, Moscow Healthcare Department, Moscow; 2A.I. Evdokimov Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry, Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow; 3Kazan State Medical University, Ministry of Health of Russia, Kazan; 4Kazan (Volga) Federal University, Kazan; 5Far Eastern State Medical University, Ministry of Health of Russia, Khabarovsk; 6Morozov City Children’s Clinical Hospital, Moscow Healthcare Department, Moscow; 7I.I. Mechnikov North-Western State Medical University, Ministry of Health of Russia, Saint Petersburg; 8Siberian State Medical University, Ministry of Health of Russia, Tomsk; 9M.F. Vladimirsky Moscow Regional Research Clinical Institute, Moscow; 10Maimonides State Classical Academy, Moscow; 11V.I. Razumovsky State Medical University, Ministry of Health of Russia, Saratov; 12I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow; 13S.M. Kirov Military Medical Academy, Ministry of Defense of Russia, Saint Petersburg; 14Surgut State Medical University, Ministry of Health of Russia, Surgut; 15City Clinical Hospital Five, Moscow Healthcare Department, Moscow; 16Nizhny Novgorod Medical Academy, Ministry of Health of Russia, Nizhny Novgorod; 17Territorial Clinical Hospital Two, Ministry of Health of the Krasnodar Territory, Krasnodar; 18Saint Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University, Ministry of Health of Russia, Saint Petersburg; 19Rostov State Medical University, Ministry of Health of Russia, Rostov-on-Don; 20Omsk Medical University, Ministry of Health of Russia, Omsk; 21Russian Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow; 22Novosibirsk State Medical University, Ministry of Health of Russia, Novosibirsk; 23Stavropol State Medical University, Ministry of Health of Russia, Stavropol; 24Kemerovo State Medical University, Ministry of Health of Russia, Kemerovo; 25N.I. Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow; 26A.M. Nikiforov All-Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine, Russian Ministry for Civil Defense, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters, Saint Petersburg; 27Research Institute for Medical Problems of the North, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk; 28S.P. Botkin City Clinical Hospital, Moscow Healthcare Department, Moscow; 29Tver State Medical University, Ministry of Health of Russia, Tver The Russian consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of chronic pancreatitis has been prepared on the initiative of the Russian Pancreatology Club to clarify and consolidate the opinions of Russian specialists (gastroenterologists, surgeons, and pediatricians) on the most significant problems of diagnosis and treatment of chronic pancreatitis. This article continues a series of publications explaining the most significant interdisciplinary consensus statements and deals with enzyme replacement therapy.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(8):80-87
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Characteristics of lipid metabolism and the cardiovascular system in glycogenosis types I and III
Polenova N.V., Strokova T.V., Starodubova A.V.
Abstract
Glycogen storage disease (GSD) is an inherited metabolic disorder characterized by early childhood lipid metabolic disturbances with potentially proatherogenic effects. The review outlines the characteristics of impaired lipid composition and other changes in the cardiovascular system in GSD types I and III. It analyzes the factors enabling and inhibiting the development of atherosclerosis in patients with GSD. The review describes the paradox of vascular resistance to the development of early atherosclerosis despite the proatherogenic composition of lipids in the patients of this group.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(8):88-94
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Bosentan use in pulmonary arterial hypertension: Russian and foreign experience
Valieva Z.S., Martynyuk T.V., Chazova I.E.
Abstract
The results of evaluating the efficacy and safety of bosentan in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), as shown by the data of foreign randomized controlled trials and the authors’ own experience, convincingly demonstrate that the introduction of the drug into clinical practice has led to a significant improvement of the possibilities of drug therapy in patients with this serious illness. Bosentan substantially improves physical activity in patients, reduces the severity of clinical symptoms, slows down the rates of disease progression, and prolongs survival in patients with different forms of PAH.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(8):95-103
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Depression, anxiety, and stress in patients with coronary heart disease
Belialov F.I.
Abstract
The analytical paper summarized the results of recent studies of an association of depression, anxiety, and stress with coronary heart disease (CHD). Mental disorders are shown to be associated with increased risk of CHD and to worsen the course of coronary disease. Antidepressants and psychotherapy improve the control of mental disorders, quality of life, and, in some cases, have a positive impact on the course of coronary disease.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(8):104-109
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New opportunities for inhaled therapy for inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system
Ignatova G.L., Antonov V.N.
Abstract
The paper considers current approaches to mucoregulatory therapy for various inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system. It gives the advantages and disadvantages of common drugs used in their treatment. Emphasis is laid on the use of inhaled hypertonic saline of NaCl in combination with hyaluronic acid (Hyaneb). Clinical examples of its use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute and chronic bronchitis, and severe asthma are considered.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(8):110-112
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Kagocel in the therapy of influenza and acute respiratory viral infections: Data analysis and systematization from the results of preclinical and clinical trials
Sologub T.V., Tsvetkov V.V.
Abstract
The article provides the summarized data of clinical trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of kagocel used to prevent and treat influenza and acute respiratory viral infections of different etiologies. The results of numerous preclinical and clinical trials suggest that the kagocel substance is highly safe and that it is appropriate to use the drug for the treatment and prevention of influenza and acute respiratory viral infections of another etiology.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(8):113-119
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Liver diseases: The pathogenetic role of the gut microbiome and the potential of treatment for its modulation
Aitbaev K.A., Murkamilov I.T., Fomin V.V.
Abstract
The paper gives an update on the role of the gut microbiome (GM) in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, liver cirrhosis (LC), and its complications, such as hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and discusses the possibilities of its correction with prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). The pathophysiology of the liver diseases in question demonstrates some common features that are characterized by pathogenic changes in the composition of the gastrointestinal tract microflora, by intestinal barrier impairments, by development of endotoxemia, by increased liver expression of proinflammatory factors, and by development of liver inflammation. In progressive liver disease, the above changes are more pronounced, which contributes to the development of LC, HE, and HCC. GM modulation using prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and FMT diminishes dysbacteriosis, strengthens the intestinal mucosal barrier, reduces endotoxemia and liver damage, and positively affects the clinical manifestations of HE. Further investigations are needed, especially in humans, firstly, to assess a relationship of GM to the development of liver diseases in more detail and, secondly, to obtain evidence indicating the therapeutic efficacy of GM-modulating agents in large-scale, well-designed, randomized, controlled, multicenter studies.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(8):120-128
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Chronic gastritis: Instructions for use of medications
Simanenkov V.I., Vyalov S.S.
Abstract
The paper highlights the features of drug use in the legal aspect. It analyzes instructions for medical use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and gastric protective agents. Taking into account the characteristics of indications registered in the instruction, the authors discuss the possibility of using various PPIs. The instruction for medical application is an official document approved by the Ministry of Health, the basis of which is the data of trials carried out by a manufacturer, and it should be a key or fundamental source for a physician in choosing a medication. The use of a drug with no indications given in the manual (the so-called “off-label” use in foreign practice), is a clinical trial of a sort conducted by a physician individually, by taking upon himself/herself a legal liability. If arguments break out over the correct choice of this or that drug in treating the specific patient, the instruction containing the indications for use of specific medications to treat a specific disease is one of the proofs that the physician has correctly chosen the drug or a criterion for skilled medical care. The inclusion of chronic gastritis as a primary and only diagnosis into the primary documentation substantially limits the possibilities of using PPIs. When a PPI is indicated for therapy of erosive gastritis, a formal rationale is contained only in the instruction for use of Controloc. There are no registered indications for PPI use to treat chronic non-erosive gastritis; the gastric protective agent Rebagit is indicated.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(8):129-133
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Hyponatremia: A clinical approach
Shchekochikhin D.Y., Kozlovskaya N.L., Kopylov F.Y., Syrkin A.L., Shilov E.M.
Abstract
Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte metabolic abnormality in clinical practice. The unfavorable course of many diseases is associated with hyponatremia. Acute severe hyponatremia is life-threatening because cerebral edema may develop. Less obvious chronic hyponatremia increases the risk of balance problems, falls and fractures, especially in elderly patients. In any occasion, hyponatremia should not be now regarded only as a laboratory phenomenon in critically ill patients, but it necessitates a thorough clinical analysis of each individual case and appropriate therapy. The paper presents approaches to diagnosing and treating hyponatremia in various clinical situations.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(8):134-140
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Main results of the World Congress of Internal Medicine (Bali, 2016)
Martynov A.I., Andreeva L.A., Panchenkova L.A., Khamidova K.A.
Abstract
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(8):141-144
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