Vol 90, No 7 (2018)

Editorial
Diagnostics of thrombocytopenias
Mazurov A.V., Khaspekova S.G., Vasiliev S.A.
Abstract
Laboratory methods used for the diagnostics of thrombocytopenias are reviewed. Differential diagnosis is usually carried out between immune and hypoproductive forms of thrombocytopenia. Immune thrombocytopenias are caused by appearance in blood of antiplatelet abtibodies and accelerated destruction of platelets sensibilized by those antibodies, and hypoproductive thrombocytopenias - by impaired platelet production in the bone marrow. Main directions of the laboratory diagnostics of thrombocytopenias - analysis of auto - and alloautoantibodies and evaluation of platelet production and turnover in the blood stream. The following methods are used for the investigation of antiplatelet antibodies: 1) measurement of platelet associated immunoglobulins; 2) determination of circulating antibodies reacting with platelets; 3) determination of antibodies using antigen specific methods - by their reactivity with isolated platelet antigens (glycoproteins). Efficacy of platelet production could be assessed by measuring in blood the amount of “young” (reticulated) platelets. One more method for the evaluation of platelet production as well as the rate of platelet turnover - measurement of plasma soluble glycocalicin, glycoprotein Ib fragment shed from the surface of platelets upon their destruction in spleen and liver. In patients with immune thrombocytopenia autoantibodies are evaluated in all cases, the percentage of reticulated platelets is significantly increased and the amount of plasma glycocalicin is within the normal range or increased. In patients with hypoproductive thrombocytopenia autoantibodies are not detected or detected at low level, the percentage of reticulated platelets is within the normal range or slightly increased and the amount of plasma glycocalicin is lowered. Diagnostics of hapten forms of immune thromocytopenias (heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and others) and of alloimmune thrombocytopenias (neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia in particular) are considered in the separate sections of this review.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(7):4-13
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Results of program acute myeloid leukemia therapy use in National Medical Research Center for Hematology of the Ministry of Health of Russian Federation
PAROVICHNIKOVA E.N., LOUKIANOVA I.A., TROITSKAYA V.V., DROKOV M.Y., LOBAOVA T.I., KUZMINA L.A., SOKOLOV A.N., KOKHNO A.V., FIDAROVA Z.T., BASKHAEVA G.A., GAVRILINA O.A., VASILYEVA V.A., OBUKHOVA T.N., KUZNETSOVA S.A., SUDARIKOV A.B., DVIRNIK V.N., GALTSEVA I.V., DAVIDIVA J.O., KULIKOV S.M., SAVCHENKO V.G.
Abstract
Objective. To analyze treatment results of 172 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) aged 18-60 years in National Medical Research Center for Hematology of MHRF. Materials and methods. Inductive and consolidation program for 139 (80%) patients was based on a standardized protocol: 4 courses “7+3” with different anthracycline use (2 courses of daunorubicin, idarubicin, mitoxantrone) and continuous use of cytarabine on the second inductive course. In 20% of patients cytarabine courses at the dose of 1 g/m2 2 times a day for 1-3 days combined with idarubicin and mitoxantrone were used as two consolidation courses. Allogenic bone marrow transplantation was performed in the first complete remission (CR) period in 40% of patients. Results. The frequency of CR achievement in all patients was 78.6%, refractory forms were observed in 13.9% of patients, early mortality - in 7.5% of patients. Seven-year overall survival (OS) rate was 40.7%, relapse free survival (RFS) - 43.2%. When estimating effectiveness depending on cytogenetic risk group it was demonstrated that 5-year OS and RFS in patients with translocation (8; 21) cannot be considered as satisfying, it accounted for 50 and 34%, respectively. At the same time in patients with 16th chromosome inversion (inv16) these characteristics accounted for 68.6 and 63.5%. Acquired results forced reconsidering of the consolidation program in AML patients of this subgroup. The median time to allogenic blood stem cells transplantation (allo-BSCT) in patients with first CR was 6.5 months that was taken as a reference point in landmark analysis of patients in whom allo-BSCT was not performed. Landmark analysis showed that in AML patients of favorable prognosis group allo-BSCT does not significantly reduce the probability of relapse (0 and 36%) and does not influence RFS (33 and 64%). In patients of border-line and poor prognosis allo-BSCT significantly reduces relapse probability (26 and 66%; 20 and 100%) and significantly increases a 7-year RFS (68.7 and 30%; 45.6 and 0%). Allo-BSCT also results in significant RFS increase and reduces the probability of relapse (25 and 78%) in patients in whom CR was achieved only after the second induction course. At the same time allo-BSCT does not influence patients who achieved CR after the first treatment course: 55 and 50%. Conclusion. Multivariate analysis showed that cytogenetic risk group (HR=2.3), time of CR achievement (HR=2.9), and allo-BSCT transplantation (HR=0.16) are independent factors for disease relapse prognosis after achieving CR.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(7):14-22
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Cepeginterferon alfa-2b in the treatment of chronic myeloproliferative diseases
MELIKYAN A.L., SUBORTSEVA I.N., GILYAZITDINOVA E.A., KOLOSHEJNOVA T.I., PUSTOVAYA E.I., EGOROVA E.K., KOVRIGINA A.M., SUDARIKOV A.B., ABDULLAEV A.O., LOMAIA E.G., SIORDIYA N.T., ZARITSKEY A.Y., SAVCHENKO V.G.
Abstract
Purpose of the study. A comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of different therapeutic strategies in patients with polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET). Materials and methods. Patients with PV or ET, diagnosed according to the criteria WHO 2016 were included in the study. The primary endpoint - 6 months of therapy (clinical-hematological and molecular responses). The secondary endpoint - 12 months of therapy (clinico-hematologic, molecular, histological responses). Sixty three patients were included in the analysis: the first group consisted of 33 patients who received the therapy with ce-pegiterferone alpha-2b (ce-pegalpha-INF-α-2b), 10 of them received previous treatment; the second group - 23 patients btained hydroxycarbamide; the third group - 7 patients were treated with recombinant interferon alpha therapy (rINFα). In comparison groups, differences in age were revealed: patients receiving hydroxycarbamide therapy were older. Phlebotomy occurred in 36% of patients in the first group, 9% in the second group, and 14% in the third group. Results. By the 6th month of therapy, 43% of the patients receiving the ce-pegalpha-INF-α-2b had complete clinical-hematologic response, 36% had partial clinical-hematologic remission and stabilization of the disease was established in 21% cases. No disease progression occured. By the 12th month of therapy, statistically significant differences in terms of efficacy between the different therapeutic groups (p = 0.2462, Fisher's exact test). In all three groups, the allelic load of JAK2V617F decreased: from 50 to 19%, from 22.3 to 15.8%, from 50 to 7.19%, respectively. The lower the allele load positively correlated with better response to therapy, which was observed in all analyzed groups. Hematologic adverse events (AEs) were more frequently observed in patients receiving ce-pegalpha-INF-α-2b therapy. Local reactions developed on 3-7 days of therapy as a hyperemic macula at the injection site. Both these reactions and hair loss did not influence on patient’s condition. In the second group (patients with hydroxycarbamide therapy) there were changes in the skin and mucous membranes: dry skin, stomatitis, and in older patients new keratomas appeared. The flu-like syndrome was the most common adverse event associated with the therapy of ce-pegalpha-INF-α-2b, which fully relived during the first month of therapy. There was only one case with the flu-like syndrome we observed at the 11th month of therapy. As a rule, the biochemical blood test changes did not influence on patient’s condition, were mostly associated with dietary violations, had a tendency to self-resolution and did not require medical interventions. Serious AEs were reported in one case - pulmonary embolism in a patient treated with rINFα. The reasons for the therapy discontinue in group 1: toxic hepatitis, intolerance, by the request of the patient, inadequate efficacy of therapy; in group 2: skin toxicity, in group 3: thromboses. The conclusion. Treatment of ce-pegalpha-INF-α-2b in patients with PV and ET is highly effective - the most patients pbtained clinical and hematological responses. There were no statistically significant differences in these parameters in comparison with hydroxycarbamide and rINFα. The use of the ce-pegalpha-INF-α-2b had an acceptable safety profile. The estimated therapeutic dose should be calculated according to body weight. To reduce the frequency of hematologic AE, titration of the drug dose is required.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(7):23-29
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Structure and significance of cytogenetic abnormalities in adult patients with Ph-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia
PISKUNOVA I.S., OBUKHOVA T.N., PAROVICHNIKOVA E.N., KULIKOV S.M., TROITSKAYA V.V., GAVRILINA O.A., SAVCHENKO V.G.
Abstract
Objective. To evaluate occurrence, variety, structural peculiarities and prognostic meaning of cytogenetic abnormalities in adult patients with Ph-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) receiving therapy according to ALL-2009 protocol. Materials and methods. The study included 115 adult patients with firstly diagnosed Ph-negative ALL: 58 male and 57 female aged from 15 to 61 years (mean age 26.5 years), who underwent treatment from September 2009 to September 2015 in National Medical Research Center for Hematology MH RF (n=101) and in hematology departments of regional hospitals (n=14). All patients received therapy of ALL-2009 protocol (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01193933). The median follow-up was 24.5 months (0.2-94.4 months). As a part of the study results of a standard cytogenetic assay (SCA) were analyzed and fluorescence hybridization in situ (FISH) with the use of DNA-probes was performed on archived biological material for structural changes in gene locuses MLL/t(11q23), с-MYC/t(8q24), TP53/ deletion 17p13, CDKN2A/ deletion 9p21, translocation t(1;19)/E2A-PBX1 и t(12;21)/ETV6-RUNX1; iAMP21 identification. Results. Karyotype was defined using SCA in 86% of patients. Normal karyotype was found in 48.5% of them, chromosome aberrations in 51.5% (structural changes were found in 19.2%, hyperploidy in 27.2%, and hypoploidy in 5.1%). In 17.2% of patients complex karyotype abnormalities were found. With the use of FISH technique aberrations were found in 67% of patients: 9p21/CDKN2A deletion in 24.3%, MLL/t(11q23) gene abnormalities in 7.8%, 17p13/TP53 deletion in 5.2%, abnormalities of c-MYC/t(8q24) in 1.7%, t(1;19)/E2A-PBX1 in 0.8%, and iAMP21 in 0.8%, other abnormalities (additional signals/absence of signals from gene locuses) in 26.4%, t(12;21)/ETV6-RUNX1 was not found. FISH technique use in addition to SCA allows to increase aberrant karyotype location from 51.5 to 67%. A statistically significant correlation of 9p21/CDKN2A deletion with high serum lactate dehydrogenase activity (p=0.02); MLL/t(11q23) gene abnormalities - with leucocytosis and high blast cells level in blood (p=0.0016), hyperploidy - with normal leukocyte count (p=0.02) was shown. In groups with different cytogenetic abnormalities no statistically significant differences of treatment with ALL-2009 protocol were found (in terms of complete remission, early mortality and treatment resistance). When connection of cytogenetic abnormalities and their combinations with long-term results were analyzed according to ALL-2009 protocol, only two characteristics - MLL/t(11q23) and c MYC/t(8q24) gene abnormalities had a statistically significant influence on disease-free survival (HR - 176.9; p<0.0001) and chance of recurrence (HR - 6.4; p=0.02) Conclusion. Adverse prognostic factors in terms of therapeutic management provided in ALL-2009 protocol were MLL/t(11q23) and с-MYC/t(8q24) genes abnormalities. CDKN2A/9p21 and TP53/17p13 genes deletions, quantative and complex karyotype abnormalities were not prognostic factors in adult patients with Ph-negative ALL in ALL-2009 protocol use.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(7):30-37
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The role of nelarabine in the treatment of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: literature review and own experience
DYAKONOVA Y.Y., BYDANOV O.I., POPOV A.M., OLSHANSKAYA Y.V., BOICHENKO E.G., ALEYNIKOVA O.V., MASCHAN M.A., SHELIKHOVA L.N., LITVINOV D.V., KHACHATRYAN L.A., PONOMAREVA N.I., FECHINA L.G., NOVICHKOVA G.A., PASHANOV E.D., KARACHUNSKIY A.I.
Abstract
Aim. The analysis of experience of nelarabine use in refractory/relapsed T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) depending on the immunophenotype and the line of therapy. Materials and methods. All the patients with relapsed or refractory T-ALL aged from 0 to 18 years who received treatment with nelarabine as a part of the therapeutic element R6 were included in the study. For all patients a detailed immunological analysis of leukemia cells with discrimination of immunological variants TI, TII, TIII or TIV was performed. Patients administered with nelarabine as a first therapeutic element were referred to the first-line therapy group, other patients were referred to the second-line therapy group. Nelarabine was administered as intravenous infusion at a dose of 650 mg/m2, on days 1-5. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells transplantation (allo-HSCT) was considered for all patients. Results. From 2009 to 2017, 54 patients with refractory/relapsed T-ALL were treated with nelarabine. Five-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) was 28% for all patients, cumulative risk of relapse (CIR) was 27%. EFS was significantly higher in nelarabine first-line therapy group in comparison with second-line therapy group (34±8% vs 8±8%, p=0,05). In patients after allo-HSCT EFS, OS and CIR were 51±10%, 50±10% and 39,1±9,5% accordingly. The best results were achieved in patients with TI immunophenotype. No toxicity-related mortality as well as severe neurologic complications or discontinuation of therapy associated with use of nelarabine were reported. Conclusion. The use of nelarabine is an effective strategy for the treatment of relapsed and refractory T-ALL. The best treatment outcomes were obtained in patients with TI immunophenotype and in the first-line therapy group. Optimal dosage regimens can be established during controlled clinical trials.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(7):37-50
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Immunoglobulinopathies in patients with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma
CHERNOVA N.G., SOBOLEVA N.P., MARIINA S.A., SIDOROVA Y.V., SINITSYNA M.N., DVIRNYK V.N., BADMAZHAPOVA D.S., VINOGRADOVA Y.E., ZVONKOV E.E., SAVCHENKO V.G.
Abstract
Contex. Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkins lymphoma, characterized by generalized lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly and dysproteinemia. Hypergammaglobulinaemia is revealed in 50-83% pts with AITL. However, the characteristics of immunoglobulinopathies observed in AITL are scarce. Objective: The aim of the study was to characterize quantitative and qualitative immunoglobulinopathies in patients with AITL at the onset of the disease. Patients and methods. 55 patients with newly diagnosed AITL were enrolled in the study, the male/female ratio was 30/25; median age was 61 (29-81) years. Diagnosis was based on standard WHO criteria. Immunochemical studies of blood serum included serum protein electrophoresis/immunofixation, nephelometric quantification of total immunoglobulins, serum free light chain assay. Results. Quantitative and qualitative immunoglobulinopathies were determined in 49 (89,1%) of 55 pts. Quantitative immunoglobulinopathies were revealed in 47 (85.5%) of 55 cases, qualitative - in 14 (25,5%). Combination quantitative and qualitative immunoglobulinopathies was observed in 12 (21,8%) of 55 pts. The detected immunoglobulinopathies were divided into 4 groups: polyclonal hypergammaglobulinaemia, hypogammaglobulinaemia, oligoclonal gammapathy, and monoclonal gammapathy. Polyclonal hypergammaglobulinaemia was marked in 41 (74.5%) of 55 pts, elevated level of IgG was determined in 27 (49,15%) of 55 cases, IgM - in 18 (32,7%) and IgA - in 21 (38.2%). Interestingly, polyclonal IgE hypergammaglobulinaemia was detected in 12 (48,0%) of 25 cases of performed studies. Hypogammaglobulinaemia was detected in 8 (14,5%) of 55 cases. Oligoclonal gammapathy was determined in 4 (7.3%) of 55 pts. Monoclonal gammapathy was revealed in 11 (20,0%) of 55 cases. The amount of monoclonal immunoglobulin varied from 2.6 to 14.1 g/l. Monoclonal immunoglobulin Gk was detected in 5 of 11 pts, Gλ - in 2, Mλ - in 2, Mk - in 2. Monoclonal gammapathy was accompanied by polyclonal hypergammaglobulinaemia in 9 of 11 cases, hypogammaglobulinaemia - in 2. Conclusions. Quantitative and qualitative immunoglobulinopathies are observed in most patients at the onset of AITL. Quantitative abnormalities were determined more often than qualitative. Monoclonal gammapathy can be a manifestation of lymphoproliferation and other concomitant disorders. The prognostic value of immunochemical parameters is still unclear and requires dynamic observation and study.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(7):51-56
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Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with alpha/beta T-lymphocyte depletion and short course of eculizumab in adolescents and young adults with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
SHASHELEVA D.A., MASCHAN A.A., SHELIKHOVA L.N., PETROVA U.N., KURNIKOVA E.E., ILLARIONOVA O.I., BOYAKOVA E.V., NOVICHKOVA G.A., MASCHAN M.A.
Abstract
The main goal is to optimize hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) approach among adolescents and young adults with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) by means of Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and post-transplant complications risk lowering. Materials and methods. We report our experience of HSCT from HLA-matched unrelated donors using TCR alfa/beta and CD19 depletion in 5 pts (1M/4F) with PNH, developed after successful immunosuppressive therapy (IST) of acquired aplastic anemia (AA). Median age of pts at the moment of transplantation was 17,8 years (range 14,5-22,7), median interval from IST to PNH was 4 years (5mo - 6,5 y). In all patients non-severe pancytopenia was present: granulocytes 0,8х109/l (0,8-1,8 х109/l) platelets 106 х109/l (27-143 х109/l) and Hb -78 g/l, median PNH clone size in granulocytes was 94 (range 75-99)%. One pts previously developed sinus thrombosis. Conditioning consisted of thoraco-abdominal irradiation 4-6 Gy, cyclophosphamide 100 mg/kg, fludarabine 150 mg/m2 and anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) or alemtuzumab. Eculizumab was given from day (-7) till day (+14) (every 7 days, only 4 times). GVHD prophylaxis was tacrolimus ± methotrexate. Results. Infusedgraft characteristics were: CD34+ - 8,1х106/kg, CD3TCRab·150х103/kg, CD3gd+ - 7,3х106/kg, СD19+ - 221х103/kg, NK -6,4х108/kg. Engraftment was achieved in all 5 pts with a median of 15(12-18) и 13(10-18) days for granulocytes and platelets, respectively. Skin acute GVHD grade I developed in only 1 pt, and subsided with short course of glucocorticoids. CMV reactivation occurred in 1 pt; there were no episodes of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) o rAdenovirus (AdV) reactivation. Full donor myeloid chimerism was established in all pts by day +30. Immune reconstitution was delayed until 6 months after transplant but no severe infections occurred. All pts are alive 1,7-5,5 years (med 4 years) after HSCT with normal hematopoiesis and immune function, full donor chimerism and no late sequelae. Conclusions. Transplantation of TCRalfa/beta and CD19 depleted hematopoietic cells from matched unrelated donor after immunoablative conditioning and supported with short course of eculizumab is perfectly safe and efficient technology leading to cure in young patients with PNH.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(7):57-64
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Maternal incompatibilities with fetal human platelet alloantigens -1a, -1b and -15 are the main causes of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia in Russia
KHASPEKOVA S.G., GOLOVKINA L.L., DONUSH E.K., GOLUBEVA N.V., SHUSTOVA O.N., MAZUROV A.V.
Abstract
The aim. Mechanisms underlying the development of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT) in in Russia have been studied. Materials and methods. Genetic polymorphisms of human platelet alloantigens (HPA) -1, -2, -3, -4, -5, and -15 were evaluated in 27 families having the newborns with NAIT. NAIT was diagnosed according to the following criteria: (1) newborn with thrombocytopenia; (2) mother with no thrombocytopenia and no increase of platelet associated IgG, (3) presence of antibodies reacting with paternal platelets in maternal plasma / serum. HPA genotyping revealed incompatibilities in 23 out of 27 tested families. In these 23 families HPA-1 conflicts were detected in 16 ones (70%). In 8 cases mothers were homozygous carriers of rare HPA-1b allele and in another 8 cases - of HPA-1a allele which cased incompatibilities with fetal HPA-1a and HPA-1b respectively. In 5 out of 23 families (22%) there were incompatibilities with fetal HPA-15 (HPA-15a, n=2 and HPA-15b, n=3), in 1 family - with HPA-5b (4%), and in 1 family - with HPA-3b (4%) alloantigens. In conclusion the main causes of NAIT in Russia were HPA-1a and -1b conflicts and HPA-15 conflicts were the second frequent ones.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(7):65-69
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Thrombopoietin Receptor Agonists in the Treatment of Chronic Resistant Primary Immune Thrombocytopenia: Efficacy and Safety Data in Real Clinical Practice
PTUSHKIN V.V., VINOGRADOVA O.Y., PANKRASHKINA M.M., CHERNIKOV M.V., ARSHANSKAYA E.G., TKACHENKO N.E.
Abstract
Objective: To analyze the long-term efficacy and safety of ATR in adult patients with primary resistant ITP in real-world clinical practice. Materials and methods.The article contains long-term results analysis of ATR application under real clinical practice conditions in 138 patients (40 men and 98 women) whose median age at the beginning of therapy was 59 (18-86) years. Two ATR medicines-romiplostim (100 patients) and eltrombopag (38 patients) were used. Results. During the first month of therapy, the median platelet count in the romiplostim group increased from 17·109 / L to 60·109 / L (9-600·109 / L), and the elethrombopag from 16.109 / L to 56.109 / L (9-400·109 / L). The minimal response (reaching platelet counts over 30·109 / L) was achieved in 92% of cases in both groups. Partial response (achievement of platelet count more than 50·109 / L) was achieved in 91 and 84% of patients in the rhombostim and eltrombopag groups, respectively. The frequency of complete response (an increase in platelet counts above 100·109 / L) was noted somewhat more often in the rhyploistim group-69% compared to 47% in the eltrombopag group (P = NS). Most patients demonstrated a long-term stable effect in the form of an increase in blood platelet count to a safe level during months and years of ATR treatment. The achievement of at least partial remission for 3 months or more was 70 and 71% in romiplostim and elthrombopag groups, respectively. Patients who started ATR- therapy are currently continuing treatment: 51% - in romiplostim group and in eltrombopag group-39%. The main reason of discontinuation the initially effective therapy were the loss of platelet response, toxicity, withdrawal from treatment (withdrawal with preservation of remission) and patients death. The tolerability of drugs with long-term admission was satisfactory. The most common AE were headache, bone pain, thrombosis, increased blood pressure and petechial hemorrhagic eruptions. The overall incidence of complications did not differ significantly between the romiplostim and eltrombopag groups -15.6 and 15.8%, respectively. Conclusion. Long-term ATR-therapy using in patients with resistant chronic ITP is an effective and largely safe treatment option.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(7):70-76
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First experience of using Brentuximab vedotin and modified program NHL-BFM-90 in the front-line treatment of patient with anaplastic large-cell lymphoma: a case report and a review of literature
CHERNOVA N.G., ZVONKOV E.E., BADMAZHAPOVA D.S., SINITSYNA M.N., GREBENYUK L.A., SIDOROVA Y.V., KOSTINA I.E., KOVRIGINA A.M., OBUKHOVA T.N., SUDARIKOV A.B., SAVCHENKO V.G.
Abstract
Nodal anaplastic ALK-negative large cell lymphoma (nALCL, ALK-) is a Т-cell lymphoma that is characterized by aggressive clinical course and low sensitivity to СНОР (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisolone) and other chemotherapy regimen. In the article we present a literature review and describe our clinical case of nALCL, ALK-. For the first time a combination of Brentuximab vedotin with modified program NHL-BFM-90 was used as a first-line therapy. As a result of immunochemotherapy a complete antineoplastic effect was obtained. For consolidation of this effect high-dose chemotherapy with following autologous blood stem cell transplantation was performed. The chosen treatment tactics allowed to achieve a complete remission in a medium risk group patient.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(7):77-81
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Wound analgesia in a patient with hemophilia in a highly traumatic operation
LEVCHENKO O.K., POLYANSKAYA T.U., ZORENKO V.Y., GALSTIAN G.M.
Abstract
Given a number of limitations on the use of perioperative analgesia in patients with hemophilia, wound analgesia may be one of the components of multimodal analgesia in this category of patients. The aim of the study was to describe the use of the wound analgesia method in a patient with hemophilia in the case of a clinical case. Materials and methods. A patient with severe hemophilia A underwent postoperative analgesia after total knee replacement (within the first 48 hours) with an extended infusion of local anesthetic (ropivacaine) into the wound. Results. During the first 8 hours, the patient received 20 mg of morphine (with the aid of a device for patient-controlled analgesia), the pain level ranged from 7 to 4 points. Further, there was a sufficient effect (NRS - 2 points), from anesthesia only with ropivacaine, using a system for anesthetizing surgical wounds. Complications and side effects were not noted. Conclusion. The clinical case demonstrates an effective and safe method of prolonged analgesia in patients with hemophilia. Considering encouraging data, further study of wound analgesia in this category of patients is necessary.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(7):82-85
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Constrictive pericarditis in a patient with inherited factor VII deficiency
PONOMAREV R.V., MODEL S.V., ZOZULYA N.I., IVANOV V.A., PODCHASOV D.A., MERSHINA E.A., SINITSYN V.E., LUKINA E.A.
Abstract
Constrictive pericarditis (CP) is the final stage of a chronic inflammatory process characterized by fibrous thickening and calcification of the pericardium that impairs diastolic filling, reduces cardiac output, and ultimately leads to heart failure. We present a clinical case of CP in a patient with rare inherited bleeding disorder - factor VII deficiency. Heart failure due to CP was suspected based on clinical symptoms, results of ultrasonic and radiological investigations. The diagnosis was verified by the results of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Pericardectomy was performed resulting in significant improvement in the patient’s condition.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(7):86-90
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Successful experience of treatment of a patient with generalized non-GCB- DLBCL using the R-mNHL-BFM-90 protocol with lenalidomide: case report and review of literature
GABEEVA N.G., ZVONKOV E.E., KOROLEVA D.A., CHUKAVINA M.M., OBUKHOVA T.N., KOVRIGINA A.M.
Abstract
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is categorized by gene expression profiling into germinal center (GCB) and activated B-cell (ABC) subtype, also referred to as non-germinal center B-cell (non-GCB) by immunohistochemistry. ABC DLBCL is characterized by NF-κB pathway activation and high expression of IRF4/MUM1, a key transcription factor in B cell differentiation. Patients with ABC DLBCL have a significantly worse outcome when treated with standard chemotherapy (R-CHOP). Lenalidomide have shown activity in the ABC-DLBCL in combination with R-CHOP. But about 40% of patients remain resistant. We present the experience of treatment of a patient with generalized non-GCB-DLBCL using the intensive protocol R-mNHL-BFM-90 with lenalidomide.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(7):96-101
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Acute ischemic stroke in the setting of essential thrombocytemia (clinical cases)
TANASHYAN M.M., KUZNETSOVA P.I., RASKURAZHEV A.A., SUBORTSEVA I.N., MELIKYAN A.L.
Abstract
This article describes several clinical cases of acute ischemic stroke among patients suffering from essential thrombocytemia. Ambiguity of etiological factors of stroke is demonstrated among patients with this pathology. Thrombocytosis and high allele load in the Jak2 gene play an important role (even with normal platelet count) in progression of cerebrovascular disease. Also the question of effectiveness of preventive and etiological therapy is considered.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(7):102-104
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Coinheritance of HbD-Punjab/β+-thalassemia (IVSI+5 G-C) in patient with Gilbert's syndrome
PETRENKO A.A., PIVNIK A.V., KIM P.P., DEMIDOVA E.Y., SURIN V.L., ABDULLAEV A.O., SUDARIKOV A.B., PETROVA N.A., MARYINA S.A.
Abstract
Thalassemia and qualitative hemoglobinopathy are hereditary disorders of Hb synthesis that lead to change in the Hb conformation or a decrease in the synthesis of structurally normal Hb, and consequently, to erythron pathology. Many variants of Hb are unstable or have altered affinity for oxygen, and, in heterozygous form can be associated with clinical and hematological manifestations (hemolytic anemia, hypochromic microcytic anemia, erythrocytosis). HbD-Punjab [β121 (GH4) Glu → Gln; HBB: C.364G> C] is variant of Hb carrying the amino acid substitution in the 121 position of β-globin chain. In all cases reported so far, patients with HbD-Punjab/β+-thalassemia (IVSI+5 G-C) combination experienced typical thalassemia with hypochromic microcytosis. HbD-Punjab was detected by electrophoresis from 37 to 94% of total Hb. The article describes rare clinical case of the cohabitation of HbD-Punjab/β+-thalassemia (IVSI+5 G-C) in a patient with homozygous variant of Gilbert's syndrome observed in AS Loginov Moscow Clinical Scientific Center.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(7):105-109
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Diagnostics and treatment challenges of Ph-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a description of 3 clinical cases
ZARUBINA K.I., PAROVICHNIKOVA E.N., BASKHAEVA G.A., KRASILNIKOVA A.E., GAVRILINA O.A., BIDERMAN B.V., SUDARIKOV A.B., BONDARENKO S.N., DAVYDOVA Y.O., GALTSEVA I.V., SOKOLOV A.N., TROITSKAYA V.V., SAVCHENKO V.G.
Abstract
B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is a diverse group of malignant blood disorders both with regard to the biological properties of the tumor and to therapeutic approaches. Immunophenotyping, molecular genetic techniques, whole-genome sequencing characterize B-ALL as a very diverse group for sensitivity to chemotherapy and prognosis. We present three clinical cases of patients with B-ALL and expected good response to standard therapy, in whom standard protocol treatment failured: refractoriness, persistence of minimal residual disease (MRD), and progression (MRD increase). The remission in these patients was achieved after chemotherapy change to immunological targeted therapy. Nowadays a unified therapeutic approach to all primary patients of the B-ALL is considered generally outdated. Great efforts are carrying out to develop molecular genetic classifications. The molecular dissection of subtypes of B-ALL goes on, and new protocols for selective treatment with targeting are clearly outlined for each subtype of B-ALL.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(7):110-117
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Literature review and clinical observation of acquired idiopathic hemophilia with a new missense mutation in the factor VIII gene (His2026Arg)
ERSHOV V.I., GADAEV I.Y., BUDANOVA D.A., PERINA F.G., SURIN V.L., SALOMASHKINA V.V., PSHENICHNIKOVA O.S., ZOZULYA N.I.
Abstract
The article provides review of possible mechanisms of inhibitor coagulopathies, in particular of acquired hemophilia A. This pathology is an extremely rare disease occurring in 1-2 cases in 1 million per year. In the present study we provide data for two clinical cases of hemophilia A in women. These cases had different development mechanisms, although both women have a newly discovered missense mutation His2026Arg in the VIII factor gene. The matter of main interest is the description of the disease development in the patient with an acquired idiopathic hemophilia A with a possible disease occurrence due to an asymmetric X-chromosome inactivation (lyonization). In this particular case lyonization led to the late manifestation of the hemophilia A carrier’s state and development of severe form of the inhibitor-associated acquired hemophilia A. We also discuss therapeutic approaches to these forms of the disease, considering there are no concise protocols for case management due to an extreme rarity of the pathology. Acquainting the clinical personnel working it the different areas of medicine with suchlike inhibitor coagulopathies has a major practical importance.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(7):118-122
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