Vol 89, No 12-2 (2017)

Articles
Short bowel syndrome
Parfenov A.I., Sabelnikova E.A., Kuzmina T.N.
Abstract
The paper gives information on the classification, pathogenesis, and clinical manifestations of short bowel syndrome following after intestinal resection. It discusses the treatment and rehabilitation of patients with this condition.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(12-2):144-149
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Anxiety-related blood pressure variability in patients with atrial fibrillation after cardioembolic stroke
Zolotovskaya I.A., Davydkin I.L., Poverennova I.E.
Abstract
Aim. To investigate whether of anxiety-related blood pressure (BP) variability can be corrected in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who have experienced cardioembolic stroke (CES). Subjects and methods. The investigation enrolled 125 patients (mean age, 68.5±5.7 years) with AF, who had experienced CES. The patients were randomized into 2 groups by the envelope technique: 1) 63 patients received antihypertensive drugs and an anxiolytic (adaptol) (a study group); 2) 62 patients had antihypertensive drugs only (a comparison group). Effectiveness was evaluated 2 and 6 weeks later from the time course of changes in BP readings obtained by 24-hour Holter monitoring in relation to reactive anxiety (RA) and personal anxiety (PA) scores. The latter were determined using the Spielberger-Hanin Anxiety Self-Esteem scale. Results. The patients with AF who had experienced CES were noted to have high BP variability associated with increased RA and PA scores. Group 1 showed statistically significant improvements in RA and PA 2 and 6 weeks after the start of treatment. The efficiency of anti-anxiety therapy (adaptol at a dose of 500 to 1500 mg/day) in combination with antihypertensive drugs is confirmed by the normalized circadian BP profile. Conclusion. The incorporation of an anxiolytic into pharmacotherapy regimens could improve BP, namely, to reduce and stabilize its circadian profile.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(12-2):150-156
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Treatment for ventricular arrhythmias in the absence of structural heart disease: from guidelines to clinical practice
Tsaregorodtsev D.A., Sokolov A.V., Vasyukov S.S., Beraya M.M., Ilyich I.L., Khamnagadaev I.A., Nedostup A.V.
Abstract
Objective. To determine criteria for choosing management tactics in patients with ventricular arrhythmias (VA) in the absence of structural heart disease from the point of view of physicians and patients in clinical practice and to compare the immediate results of antiarrhythmic drug therapy (ADT) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with the trends in arrhythmic syndrome in the non-treatment group. Subjects and methods. Examinations were made in 90 patients (23 men and 67 women) (mean age, 44 (31; 57) years) with VA in the absence of structural heart disease. Preference was given to RFA (n = 32 (36%)), ADT (n = 37 (41%)), and follow-up tactics (n = 21 (23%)). At baseline and 1 month, Holter ECG monitoring was done; quality of life (QOL) was assessed; and anxiety and depression levels were detected using the SF-36 and HADS questionnaires. In addition, 71 physicians were surveyed about their preferences to the treatment of VA in individuals without structural heart disease. Results. In the total group of patients, VA was unambiguously accompanied by the symptoms only in 47%. The signs of anxiety and depression were identified in 41 and 14% of cases, respectively. The efficiency of RFA was comparable to that of ADT (p > 0.1): a positive antiarrhythmic effect was observed in 71.9% of the patients in the RFA group and in 67.6% in the ADT group. During one month, 38.1% of the patients in the follow-up group showed a spontaneous substantial reduction in the number of ventricular premature beats (VPBs) or disappearance of unstable ventricular tachycardia (UVT), which met the criteria for a positive effect. At baseline, the QOL indicators on a social functioning scale in the RFA group were worse than those in the ADT group. At the same time, most QOL indicators in the patients who have chosen a wait-and-see tactic were significantly higher than those in the RFA and ADT subgroups. The patients treated with ethacyzin in the ADT group more frequently achieved a positive effect. In the interviewed physicians’ opinion, the choice of a tactic depended on the impact of arrhythmia on health status (68%), the number of VPBs per day (61%), and the presence of UVT (56%). RFA or ADT was most often recommended when there were 10,000-15,000 or more VPBs per day ((49 and 35% of the respondents, respectively). 46.5% of the respondents stated that β-blockers were the drug of choice for idiopathic frequent VPBs. Only 30% of the respondents considered it appropriate to restrict to a follow-up in the presence of asymptomatic VPBs. Conclusion. Patient management in clinical practice generally complies with the current guidelines; however, much importance is attached to the severity of arrhythmia (the number of VPBs per day, the presence of UVT) in addition to the presence of symptoms. In the opinion of most physicians, the initiation of treatment is justified when there are 10,000-15,000 and more per day. QOL assessment may be promising in choosing the optimal management tactics for these patients. Treatment should not be initiated immediately in patients with a high level of QOL, especially in those with arrhythmia lasting less than 12 months, by taking into account that there can be a spontaneous improvement in 38% of cases within the next month. The immediate results of ADT and RFA are comparable in patients with VA in the absence of structural heart disease. The Class IC antiarrhythmic drug ethacyzin is the most effective agent that ensures positive changes in arrhythmic syndrome in 66.7% of cases with the rate of side effects being in 17.8%.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(12-2):157-164
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Analysis of the effectiveness and long-term results of formation of adaptive immunity in the use of various medications and vaccination schemes against pneumococcal infection in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Protasov A.D., Zhestkov A.V., Kostinov M.P., Shteiner M.L., Tezikov Y.V., Lipatov I.S., Yastrebova N.E., Kostinova A.M., Ryzhov A.A., Polishchuk V.B.
Abstract
Aim. To assess the long-term clinical results of vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharide and conjugated polysaccharide vaccines in the separate and sequential use, by determining the optimal vaccination schedule in adult patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to investigate adaptive immunity levels. Subjects and methods. The clinical effects of vaccination were evaluated in patients with COPD within 1 and 4 years after immunization against pneumococcal infection using various schemes, as well as the time course of changes in adaptive immunity indicators was examined. Results. Four years after vaccination, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13)/23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) group showed a decline in the number of patients with COPD exacerbations by 50% (p<0.001) and reductions in the number of antimicrobial chemotherapy cycles by 47.8% (p<0.001) and in that of hospitalizations by 87.5% (p<0.001). At 1 year after vaccination versus at baseline, the COPD patients vaccinated against pneumococcal disease, regardless of the drug and schedule of vaccination, displayed elevated levels of IgG antibodies to the mixture of capsular polysaccharides included in PPV23 and PCV13. Conclusion. It has been indicated that a complex of basic therapy for patients with COPD should include initial vaccination with PCV13, followed by administration of a booster dose of PPV23.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(12-2):165-174
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Therapy for acute/subacute musculoskeletal pain: results of the ATUSA (Analgesic Treatment Using a Systemic Algorithm) observational study
Karateev A.E., Alekseeva L.I., Tsurgan A.V., Gontarenko N.V.
Abstract
Aim. To evaluate the efficiency of therapy for acute/subacute musculoskeletal pain (MSP) by applying an individualized pathogenetic approach (an algorithm) elaborated on the basis of Russian experts’ recommendations. Subjects and methods. A total of 262 physicians treating patients with rheumatic diseases participated in the ATUSA (Analgesic Treatment Using a Systemic Algorithm) program. The study enrolled 3,304 patients (54.3% women, 45.7% men; mean age, 48.6±14.3 years) with osteoarthritis, nonspecific back pain (NBP), and rheumatic diseases of periarticular soft tissues, who had experienced MSP. Treatment was performed in accordance with the following algorithm: the first prescribed medication was nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (aceclofenac): paracetamol and/or tramadol and a topical NSAID in case of contraindications and muscle relaxants in case of indications. The results of treatment were assessed after 7, 14, and 28 days. The treatment was corrected during each visit; the NSAID was, if necessary, changed; corticosteroids were locally injected; antidepressants or anticonvulsant drugs were used. The investigators assessed dynamic changes in pain using a 0—10 paint intensity numeric rating scale (NRS), the number of patients, in whom MSP was completely relieved, and satisfaction with treatment. Results. The first prescribed medication was oral NSAIDs in 97.5% of the patients and those in combination with a muscle relaxant in 67.6%. By visit 4, MSP decreased from 6.9±1.5 to 2.2±1.3 NRS scores. After 28 days, only 16.2% of patients continued to need analgesics. 88.4% of the patients rated treatment results as good or excellent. NSAID switching was required in 8.1% of cases; local glucocorticosteroid injections were needed in 1.9%; there was a need for the use of an antidepressant or anticonvulsant in 1.5% and for hospitalization in 0.25%. Adverse events were observed in 2.2% of patients. The efficiency of treatment (complete pain relief after 28 days) was influenced by the following factors: NRS diagnosis (OR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.67 to 3.11), age ≥65 years (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.98), moderate pain (NRS scores of ≤7) at the beginning of the study (OR, 2.63; 95% CI, 1.99 to 3.48), mild/moderate pain (NRS scores of <4) after 7 days of therapy (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.89 to 3.33), and the use of muscle relaxants (OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.96) (p<0.05 for all comparisons). Conclusion. The comprehensive pathogenetic approach used in analgesic therapy provides an effective and relatively safe relief of MSP in most patients with NBP and osteoarthritis.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(12-2):175-184
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Biomarkers of bone remodeling in ankylosing spondylitis patients using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: results of an ETHICS research program
Gaydukova I.Z., Aparkina A.V., Khondkaryan E.V., Rebrov A.P.
Abstract
Aim. To evaluate changes in the concentration of biomarkers for osteoproliferation and bone resorption in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in different regimens. Subjects and methods. Forty patients with AS (according to the modified New York criteria), who had BASDAI ≥ 4.0 at baseline and at 52 weeks of on-demand NSAID treatment were examined and randomized into 2 groups: 1) 30 patients who used continuously oral tenoxicam 20 mg daily (a study group); 2) 10 patients who continued previous therapy (a comparison group). BASDAI and ASDAS were calculated; the serum levels of C-reactive protein, C-terminal type I procollagen propeptide (PICP), and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I) were measured at baseline and at 52 and 56 weeks of treatment. A control group consisted of 19 healthy volunteers. Results. The continuous use of NSAIDs (tenoxicam) decreased higher baseline BASDAI and ASDAS scores. There were no changes in the indicators of AS activity in the patients who took on-demand NSAIDs. Baseline CTX-I levels did not differ between the patients with AS and the healthy individuals; those declined during continuous intake of tenoxicam and remained unchanged during on-demand administration. In the patients with AS, baseline PICP levels exceeded those in the healthy individuals. In the tenoxicam-treated patients, the concentrations of PICP at baseline and at 52 and 56 weeks were 17.1±9.0, 16.8±9.9, and 13.29±6.7 ng/ml, respectively (p=0.0001 for differences between the baseline and week 56 levels); in the comparison group, PICP levels did not change statistically significantly (p≥0.05 for all intergroup comparisons). Conclusion. Changing the inefficient long-term on-demand use of NSAIDs to their continuous intake is associated with a rapid decrease in clinical AS activity (within 4 weeks) with a reduction in the higher baseline concentration of the marker for osteoproliferation and in the normal level of the marker for bone resorption.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(12-2):185-189
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Experience in using Prolia in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis in clinical practice
Skripnikova I.A., Kosmatova O.V., Abirova E.S., Novikov V.E., Murashko L.M.
Abstract
Aim. To evaluate the efficiency and safety of long-term Prolia therapy in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis (OP). Subjects and methods. The open prospective study enrolled 98 women (mean age, 68±9 years; mean menopause duration, 17±4 years) with postmenopausal OP, who were followed up in an outpatient setting at the National Medical Research Center for Preventive Medicine and who had been treated with denosumab 60 mg subcutaneously every 6 months for 12 months or more. The maximum follow-up period was 4 years: 48, 29, 11, and 10 patients were treated for 12, 24, 36, and 48 months, respectively. The patients were allocated into 2 groups: those who received and those who had not previously received antiosteoporotic therapy. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual-energy X-ray densitometry of the lumbar spine (L—L) and proximal femur (PF). The ten-year probability of major osteoporotic fractures was estimated once in 72 patients not previously receiving antiosteoporotic therapy before the prescription of denosumab. Results. In the patients not previously receiving therapy, the median 10-year probability of major fractures using the FRAX algorithm was 14.9%; that of femoral neck (FN) fractures was 3.7%. During denosumab treatment, the BMD increase in the lumbar spine was 4.2% at 12 months, 7.5% at 24 months, was 8.8% at 36 months; that in FN was 3.1, 3.9, and 5.3%, that in PF was 2.8, 4.1, and 5%; and that in the 1/3 forearm was 0.9, 1.4, and 2.6%, respectively (p < 0.001). In the persons receiving and not previously receiving the therapy, the BMD increase was similar, i.e. there was an additional positive effect when switching to denosumab. The decrease in the serum concentration of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I) was 54% at 6 months after initiation of denosumab therapy (p < 0.001) and 72% at 12 months (p<0.001); and the achieved marker level remained unchanged at 48 months. Transition from the OP zone to osteopenia one was noted in 23 patients with low BMD (T-score -2.5 SD) in L—Land in 12 patients with that in FN at 12 months of denosumab therapy and this was in 25 patients at 24 months. Nine-eight patients receiving the first Prolia injection refused to continue treatment on their own; adverse events were not the reason for drug discontinuation. Conclusion. Therapy with denosumab was effective in increasing BMD in routine outpatient practice and in allowing 25% of patients to achieve target values of this indicator. The marked decrease in the level of the bone resorption marker STX suggested that the drug had antiresorptive potency. The frequency of adverse reactions was low, confirming the good tolerability and safety profile of the drug. The convenience of the scheme and route of drug administration contributed to strict compliance with the doctor’s recommendations. Denosumab was effective in increasing BMD not only in untreated patients, but also in those who had previously received antiosteoporotic therapy. The pharmacokinetic characteristics of denosumab, which contribute to its uniform distribution in trabecular and cortical bone tissue, regardless of active bone remodeling, and the fact that the clearance of the drug is independent of kidney function offer an advantage of administering the drug to patients with significant loss of FN and radius BMD and of reducing kidney function.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(12-2):190-196
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Predictors of the efficiency of short-term interferon-containing therapy using direct-acting antiviral drugs in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1
Kokina K.Y., Bueverov A.O., Bogomolov P.O., Matsievich M.V.
Abstract
Aim. To identify predictors for the high efficiency of short-term interferon-containing antiviral therapy (AVT) using direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) virus (HCV) type 1 (CHC-1). Materials and methods. A total of 2,798 case histories of patients aged 18 to 60 years who received AVT using peginterferon, ribavirin in combination with DAAs for CHC-1, which was stopped at 10 to 14 weeks, were selected from the archives of the healthcare facilities of the Moscow Region. The inclusion criteria were aviremia achieved when AVT was discontinued; therapy using the dose recommended in compliance with the international standards; and adherence during treatment. Results. The analysis included 179 case histories, including 158 cases of discontinuation of triple AVT using a protease inhibitor (telaprevir) and 22 cases of that of quadruple treatment (QT) with asunaprevir and daclatasvir. There were two main factors predicting a high probability of achieving a sustained virological response (SVR) in patients with HCV-1 during short-term triple AVT: viremia at 28 days of AVT, which was registered by a highly sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay (its analytical sensitivity was 12 IU/ml), and the genotype CC of interleukin-28B (IL-28B) rs12979860. With a combination of these two factors, recovery was observed in 100% of cases. SVR was observed in all cases of QT discontinuation, regardless of the stage of fibrosis and the subtype of CHC genotype. However, the resulting sample was unrepresentative. Conclusion. Triple AVT using a protease inhibitor may be reduced in patients with CHC-1 and the CC allelic variant in IL-28B if viremia is achieved at 28 days of AVT, as evidenced by highly sensitive PCR assay. Short-term QT needs further investigation.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(12-2):197-203
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Optimization of therapy for hepatobiliary disorders in psoriatic patients
Kozlova I.V., Myalina Y.N., Lipina L.P., Bakulev A.L.
Abstract
Aim. To optimize management tactics in patients with diseases of the liver and gallbladder in the presence of progressive psoriasis. Subjects and methods. The investigation enrolled 78 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and different forms of gallbladder abnormality in the presence of progressive moderate and severe psoriasis. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: 1) phosphogliv; 2) ursosan with the main active ingredient ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). A prospective follow-up study accompanied by dynamic clinical, laboratory, and instrumental monitoring was carried out for 24 weeks. Clinical, biochemical, and ultrasound studies, including liver elastography, were applied. Results. The use of UDCA (Ursosan 15 mg/kg for 24 weeks) to treat NAFLD and gallbladder abnormality in methotrexate-treated patients with progressive moderate and severe psoriasis contributed to the normalization of hepatic steatosis index, lipid composition, and lithogenic index, to the reduction of biliary sludge, and to the stabilization of liver fibrosis. Improvement in the functional status of the liver and gallbladder has contributed to the achievement of a more complete remission of dermatosis. Conclusion. The effects of UDCA in the therapy of NAFLD and gallbladder abnormality in patients with progressive psoriasis were greater than those of phosphogliv.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(12-2):204-210
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Common variable immune deficiency in adults: focus on pulmonary complications
Fomina D.S., Bobrikova E.N., Sinyavkin D.O., Parshin V.V.
Abstract
Common variable immune deficiency is the most common form of a group of primary immunodeficiencies in adult patients. Pulmonary complications occupy leading positions. It is the development of recurrent bronchopulmonary inflammatory diseases that is considered to be one of the main causes of death and disability in patients with this disease. By presenting two clinical cases with long diagnostic delays, the authors try to attract the attention of specialists of related professions, which will minimize the development of irreversible complications in the patients.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(12-2):211-215
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Malnutrition: from pathogenesis to current methods for diagnosis and treatment
Kostyukevich O.I., Sviridov S.V., Rylova A.K., Rylova N.V., Korsunskaya M.I., Kolesnikova E.A.
Abstract
Progressive weight loss is a frequent companion to somatic pathology. The risk of death is known to increase dramatically among those with a body mass index of less than 19 kg/m. Even mild weight loss in the presence of severe diseases can have a substantial impact on the course of the disease. The paper presents current views on malnutrition, its prevalence in the presence of various somatic diseases, and clinical significance. It describes the basic pathogenetic components of weight loss and the possible ways of correcting nutritional status. Particular emphasis is placed on the methods of nutritional support that is currently regarded as one of the most important components of a comprehensive approach to treating patients with chronic diseases. The authors give recommendations for the assessment of the nutritional status of patients in clinical practice and algorithms for their malnutrition management.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(12-2):216-225
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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease without obesity: the problem to be solved
Bueverov A.O., Bogomolov P.O.
Abstract
It is generally agreed that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a component of metabolic syndrome and is frequently associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, atherogenic dyslipidemia, and other components of the syndrome. However, there is no doubt that not all overweight people develop NAFLD and, conversely, the latter may be present in normal weight individuals. The prevalence of NAFLD without obesity in different countries is very variable from 3 to 30%. Its risk factors are considered to be both exogenous (for example, excess intakes of cholesterol and rapidly assimilable fructose) and genetically determined (allelic variants of the genes encoding adiponutrin, the cholesteryl ester transport protein, sterol-regulatory element-binding protein 2). The methods for the diagnosis of NAFLD without obesity do not differ in essence from those for classic NAFLD. Analysis of the conducted investigations gives grounds to claim that lifestyle modification as exercises and dietary restrictions improves biochemical parameters and histological pattern. The efficiency of drug treatments needs further investigation.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(12-2):226-232
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A rationally grounded approach to treating gout with regard to its onset and course and the presence of comorbidity according to the European League against Rheumatism (EULAR 2016) recommendations
Tsurko V.V., Gromova M.A.
Abstract
The review analyzes in detail the management of gout, which takes into account its onset and course and the presence of comorbidity. Emphasis is placed on drug and non-drug treatments and urate-lowering therapy in patients with kidney dysfunction. Along with allopurinol, the urate-lowering drug febuxostat is first recommended in Russia. The purpose of this review is to notify physicians of the possibility of achieving the target uric acid levels when treating gout with hyperuricemia.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(12-2):233-237
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A paradigm of early gonarthrosis: a review of the current diagnostic and treatment options (Part 1)
Kornilov N.N., Denisov A.A.
Abstract
The prevalence of chronic joint diseases, among which osteoarthritis (OA) prevails, continues to grow worldwide. So far, many OA patients starting to get any kind of treatment only at the stage of organ failure, when the progression of the pathological process cannot be considerably delayed. The long-felt need for a change in thinking how to effectively diagnose and treat OA patients at early stage induced to prepare this review. Its first part is devoted to discussion of the limitations of traditional approaches and to analysis of the current diagnostic capabilities, particularly the clinical features of early OA, its morphological characteristics based on the magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopic criteria, as well as the perspectives of biochemical and genetic markers implementation.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2017;89(12-2):238-243
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