Vol 90, No 8 (2018)


Modern achievements in the diagnosis and treatment of the refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease

Ivashkin V.T., Maev I.V., Trukhmanov A.S., Rumyantseva D.E.


Purpose of the review to present up-to-date data on the causes, methods of diagnosis and treatment of the refractory form of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Refractory GERD is the preservation of typical symptoms of the disease and/or incomplete healing of the esophageal mucosa against the background of taking a standard dose of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) once a day for 8 weeks. The reasons for the lack of response to the treatment are divided into related to the patient, related to therapy, and not related to GERD. Diagnostic approaches include x-ray examination of the esophagus and stomach, endoscopy with biopsy, 24-hour Impedance-pH monitoring, esophageal manometry. Depending on the reasons for the lack of response to the therapy, treatment may include lifestyle changes, doubling the dose of PPI, replacing PPI with another, adding H2-receptor antagonists, prokinetics, antacids, alginates and adsorbents. If conservative treatment is ineffective, it is possible to consider alternative methods, such as surgical treatment. Refractory GERD is a serious clinical problem. The absence of an answer to 8-week therapy with PPI requires a thorough differential diagnosis using additional examination methods. The identification of the causes of refractory to the therapy allows to optimize the approaches to its overcoming and to choose the optimal treatment.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(8):4-12
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Russian consensus on exoand endocrine pancreatic insufficiency after surgical treatment

Khatkov I.E., Maev I.V., Abdulkhakov S.R., Alekseenko S.A., Alikhanov R.B., Bakulin I.G., Bakulina N.V., Baranovskiy A.Y., Beloborodova E.V., Belousova E.A., Voskanyan S.E., Vinokurova L.V., Grinevich V.B., Darvin V.V., Dubtsova E.A., Dyuzheva T.G., Egorov V.I., Efanov M.G., Izrailov R.E., Korobka V.L., Kotiv B.N., Kokhanenko N.Y., Kucheryavyy Y.A., Livzan M.A., Lyadov V.K., Nikolskaya K.A., Osipenko M.F., Pasechnikov V.D., Plotnikova E.Y., Sablin O.A., Simanenkov V.I., Tsvirkun V.V., Tsukanov V.V., Shabunin A.V., Bordin D.S.


The Russian consensus on exo - and endocrine pancreatic insufficiency after surgical treatment was prepared on the initiative of the Russian "Pancreatic Club" on the Delphi method. His goal was to clarify and consolidate the opinions of specialists on the most relevant issues of diagnosis and treatment of exo - and endocrine insufficiency after surgical interventions on the pancreas. An interdisciplinary approach is provided by the participation of leading gastroenterologists and surgeons.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(8):13-26
pages 13-26 views

Efficacy and safety of the use of rebamipide in the scheme of triple eradication therapy of Helicobacter pylori infection: a prospective randomized comparative study

Andreev D.N., Maev I.V., Dicheva D.T., Samsonov A.A., Partzvania-Vinogradova E.V.


Purpose of the study. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the use of rebamipide as part of the triple eradication therapy (ET) scheme of Helicobacter pylori infection. Materials and methods. A prospective, randomized comparative study included 94 patients with uncomplicated H. pylori-associated stomach / duodenal ulcer. In the process of randomization, patients are divided into three groups depending on the intended therapy. The first group (n=36) received a classical triple scheme of the first-line ET (omeprazole 20 mg twice a day, amoxicillin 1000 mg twice a day, clarithromycin 500 mg twice a day) for 10 days. Patients of the second group (n=33) were assigned a classical triple scheme of ET with the inclusion of rebamipide (omeprazole 20 mg twice a day, amoxicillin 1000 mg twice a day, clarithromycin 500 mg twice a day, rebamipide 100 mg 3 times a day day) for 10 days. Patients of the third group (n=25) were assigned a classical triple scheme of ET with the inclusion of rebamipide (omeprazole 20 mg twice a day, amoxicillin 1000 mg twice a day, clarithromycin 500 mg twice a day, rebamipide 100 mg 3 times a day) in for 10 days, with the prolongation of the administration of rebamipide for the next 20 days. The effectiveness of ET was determined by the respiratory test after 6 weeks after the end of treatment. Adverse events were recorded by patients in specially developed diaries. All patients with gastric ulcer at the 6th week underwent a histological examination of the biopsy specimens of the antrum and the body of the stomach, assessing the inflammatory activity of the process on a point system in accordance with the updated Sydney system. Results and discussion. Efficiency of H. pylori eradication in the first group was 77.7% (ITT), 82.3% (PP), in the second group - 81.8% (ITT), 84.4% (PP), and in the third group - 84% (ITT), 87.5% (PP). The use of rebamipide in the triple ET regimen was associated with an increase in H. pylori eradication efficiency, both with simultaneous use with the scheme [odds ratio (OR) 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32-4.24], and with subsequent prolonged admission (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.34-6.7). A somewhat more pronounced dynamics of the epithelization of erosive and ulcerative changes in the mucous membrane of the stomach and duodenum to the 21st and 28th days in the third group of patients was noted. The incidence of adverse events between the groups was comparable: 22.2% in the first group, 24.2% in the second group and 20% in the third group. In the pathomorphological evaluation of biopsy specimens of patients with gastric ulcer at the 6th week after the treatment, significant differences were revealed between the first and third groups in terms of the inflammatory activity in the antrum stomach (2±0.63 vs. 1.4±0.52; p=0,0399). The conclusion. The inclusion of rebamipide in the classical triple scheme of H. pylori ET increases the effectiveness of treatment and does not affect the safety profile. In the post-eradication period, it is advisable to continue the use of rebamipide to potentiate the repair of the gastric mucosa and regress the inflammatory processes.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(8):27-32
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Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of the hybrid scheme for eradication therapy of Helicobacter pylori infection

Yurenev G.L., Partzvania-Vinogradova E.V., Andreev D.N., Dicheva D.T., Maiev I.V.


The aim is to conduct a comprehensive comparative study of the efficacy and safety of the hybrid scheme of eradication therapy (ET) in patients with peptic ulcer of the stomach or duodenum associated with Helicobacter pylori. Materials and methods. In a prospective, randomized comparative study, 180 patients were divided into three equal groups of 60 people, depending on the prescribed 10-day ET regimen. Group 1 - the standard triple scheme (omeprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin); group 2 - four-component therapy with preparations of bismuth (omeprazole, tetracycline, metronidazole, bismuth tricalium dicitrate); group 3 - hybrid scheme (first 5 days: omeprazole and amoxicillin, the next 5 days: omeprazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole). The effectiveness of ET was determined with the help of a breath test a month after the end of therapy. Adverse events were recorded by patients in specially developed diaries. Pharmacoeconomic analysis was carried out using the "cost-effectiveness" method with calculation of the CER coefficient. Results and discussion. The effectiveness of standard triple therapy was 73.3% (ITT), 75.9% (PP); four-component therapy with bismuth preparations - 78.3% (ITT), 82.4% (PP); hybrid scheme - 85% (ITT), 91% (PP). Hybrid therapy proved to be significantly more effective than standard triple therapy with a odds ratio (OR) of 3.25; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-9.73 (p=0.043, χ2=4.75, p-level=0.029298). The incidence of adverse events with the use of triple, four-component and hybrid ET regimens was 15; 18.3 and 28.3% respectively. The OR of at least one adverse event in patients receiving a hybrid ET regimen compared with triple therapy was 2.24 (95% CI 0.91-5.53, p=0.0823, χ2=3.14, p-level=0.076394), and compared with the four-component therapy - 1.76 (95% CI 0.74-4.17, p=0.2804, χ2=1.68, p-level=0.194924). According to the results of the pharmacoeconomic analysis, the most profitable from an economic point of view was a hybrid ET scheme with a CER of 20.1. The conclusion. Hybrid therapy showed the greatest effectiveness in comparison with the triple and four-component ET regimens, however, the incidence of side effects in patients receiving the hybrid ET scheme was higher, although it remained within the acceptable level for use in clinical practice. Pharmacoeconomic analysis also showed the advisability of designating a hybrid ET scheme. The obtained data allow to draw a conclusion about the necessity of further study of the efficiency and safety of the hybrid ET scheme.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(8):33-39
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Effectiveness of mebeverine in patients with post-cholecystectomy gastrointestinal spasm: results of prospective observational program “odyssey”

Maev I.V., Kucheravy Y.A., Tsukanov V.V., Eremnia E.Y., Andreev D.N., Abdulhakov S.R., Akhmedov V.A., Batskov S.S., Vasyutin A.V., V’yuchnova E.S., Ivanchenko D.N., Luzina E.V., Krapivnaya O.V., Onuchina E.V., Osipenko M.F., Simanenkov V.I., Tonkih Y.L., Khomeriki N.M., Shklyaev A.E., Akimov A.V., Sokolov K.A.


Aim: to assess the effectiveness of mebeverine 200 mg BID in patients with post-cholecystectomy gastrointestinal spasm not requiring surgical treatment. Materials and methods. 218 patients were included in 16 clinical centers in 14 cities in Russia. All patients had post-cholecystectomy gastrointestinal spasms, not requiring surgical treatment and received mebeverine (Duspatalin®) 200 mg BID. The observational assessment period lasted from the moment of their inclusion into the study up to 6 weeks post inlusion. The therapy results were evaluated using visual analog scales (GPA and 11-point numeric rating scale) by patient self-assessment of the dynamics of spasm/discomfort and other post-cholecystectomic gastrointestinal symptoms after 2 and 6 weeks of treatment. Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI) was used to assess patient quality of life. Results and discussion. All 218 patients completed the 2-week mebeverine treatment course, 101 of them finished the 6-week course (“prolonged population”). Significant positive changes in the relief of abdominal pain and dyspepsia were noted as well as normalization of stool frequency and consistency. A more marked change in values was observed during prolonged (up to 6 weeks) therapy. Both 2-week and 6-week mebeverine courses led to a normalization of patient quality of life. After 6 week therapy, an effect of mebeverine on the quality of life 91% of patients was observed comparable to cholecystectomy itself, speficially related to the quality of life subscore ‘symptoms’. Conclusion. The results of our study demonstrate that mebeverine (Duspatalin®) therapy leads to an effective elimination of clinical symptoms associated with post-cholecystectomy GI-spasm disorders, like abdominal pain, symptoms of dyspepsia and stooldisorders. A more marked change in values was observed during prolonged (up to 6 weeks) therapy.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(8):40-47
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Efficacy of Arbidol in the prevention of virus-induced exacerbations of bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Titova O.N., Petrova M.A., Shklyarevich N.A., Kuzubova N.A., Aleksandrov A.L., Kovaleva L.F., Kozyrev A.G., Kulikov V.D.


Aim. To assess the efficacy and safety of Arbidol in the influenza and ARVI preventing in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Materials and methods. This study was an open label and prospective during epidemic period of 2016-2017 years. 100 outpatients aged 18 to 80 years with verified asthma and/or COPD, were enrolled to therapy group, and received oral umifenovir 200 mg once daily for 14 days and then 200 mg twice a week for 3 weeks.The medical records data for the same epidemic period of 2016-2017 seasons of the same patients during witch they received no prophylaxis was taken as a control. The data analysis was made by applying parametric and nonparametric statistical methods. Results and discussion. Seasonal and post-exposure prophylaxis using umifenovir was associated with 2.6-times reduction in influenza and ARVI morbidity compared to control. In diseased patients (ARVI) of the therapy group the number of patients with mild illness prevailed (62.2%) and was significantly differed from control (37.1%). Severity of catarrhal symptoms and intoxication, was reduced with umifenovir prophylaxis course and were mild in 67.6% and 67.6% respectively of therapy group compared with 43.3% and 46.4% of control. Influenza and ARVI complications were only detected in control group (4 cases). The percentage of patients with incidents of underlying disease exacerbation was 42% in therapy group and 93% in control group. Also, exacerbation in the therapy group were mild in 59.5% and 34.4% in control group, while moderate exacerbation prevailed in control group and was in 59.1% of cases with was significantly higher then in therapy group (39.3%). Results in more frequent use of adjuvant in the control group compared with the therapy group (81.7% and 59.5% respectively). Patients of control group had a higher risk of hospitalizations due to underlying disease aggravation (11.8%), compared with therapy group (9.5%) but these differences were not significant. Coclusion. Seasonal and post-exposure prophylaxis with Arbidol reduce influenza and ARVI morbidity in patients with asthma and COPD during epidemic period, frequency and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease aggravations resulting in decrease in the number of hospitalizations. Also, prophylaxis with Arbidol reduced the severity of catarrhal symptoms and intoxication.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(8):48-52
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Efficiency of vaccine prophylaxis concentrated pneumococcal vaccine in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease and chronic heart failure

Ignatova G.L., Antonov V.N.


The article uses the analysis of clinical and pharmacoeconomic effectiveness of 13-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine in patients with combined course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), ischemic heart disease (IHD) and chronic heart failure (CHF). Materials and methods. 429 male patients with diagnoses of COPD, IHD, CHF were included in the study. The main endpoints of observation, for 5 years, for evaluation of effectiveness were dynamic assessment for class CHF, the number of exacerbations, hospitalizations, the number of pneumonias. The 13-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) Prevenar-13 was used for vaccine prophylaxis. Results and discussion. The increase in age with the combined course of COPD and cardiovascular pathology leads to a deterioration in the basic clinical and functional indicators. With the increase in the clinical symptoms of the defeat of the respiratory system. There is an increase in the functional class of heart failure. Inclusion of vaccine prophylaxis PCV13 in the management plan of patients with combined pathology. Reduce the degree of dyspnea and stabilize the main functional indicators. Conclusions. Vaccination of patients with COPD using PCV13 combined with CHF and IHD made it possible to manage the health system expenses by 74-84%.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(8):53-62
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The clinical significance of insulin resistance in non-diabetic patients with early forms of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Shipovskaya A.A., Dudanova O.P., Kurbatova I.V.


Aim. To assess the presence of insulin resistance (IR) in non-diabetic patients with early forms of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) - liver steatosis (LS) and steatohepatitis (SH) of mild activity and the influence of IR on the clinical course of these diseases. Materials and methods. 134 patients with NAFLD were examined: 54 with LS and 80 with SH. The control group consisted of 37 healthy donors. Anthropometric parameters (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC)), clinical and biochemical blood indices, including the blood level of cytokeratin-18 fragments (CK-18), TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines, insulin were evaluated. The HOMA index and the fibrosis index (NAFLD FS) were calculated. Patients were divided into groups: I - with the absence of IR (HOMA-index <2.7), II - with the presence of IR (HOMA-index> 2.7). Results and discussion. Indicators of hepatic injury, inflammation, cholestasis, fibrosis and atherogenic dyslipidemia are higher in patients with LS of group II (with IR) than in group I patients (without IR). BMI, WC, γ-glutamil transpeptidase, CK-18 and fibrosis index are significantly higher in group II patients with SH compared with group I, there is no significant difference in the level of cytolysis, inflammation and dyslipidemia indices. A high incidence of IR in non-diabetic patients with LS (37.0%) and SH (55.0%) was found and the effect of IR on the clinical course of these diseases was revealed. Conclusion. Insulin resistance in non-diabetic patients with NAFLD was detected in SH (55.0%) with higher frequency than in LS (37.0%). In LS, IR is associated with impaired hepatic cell damage, intrahepatic cholestasis, atherogenic dyslipidemia and fibrosis. In SH, IR is combined with reliable growth in indicators of hepatocyte apoptosis, cytokine proinflammatory status and fibrosis. IR determines the progressing course of NAFLD, promoting the transformation of steatosis into steatohepatitis and steatohepatitis into fibrosis and liver cirrhosis.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(8):63-68
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Undifferentiated sarcoma of the pericardium after radiation therapy for Hodgkin’s lymphoma

Fomin V.V., Kogan E.A., Chichkova N.V., Komarov R.N., Fominykh E.V., Shchedrina I.S., Morosova N.S., Karseladze A.I.


Primary sarcomas of the pericardium are extremely rare malignant tumors of the heart. The incidence of sarcoma increases after radiation therapy in the field of breast. The specific features of this case report are the difficulties in diagnostics of undifferentiated spindle-cell sarcoma of the pericardium and the connection between the disease and the radiation therapy for Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(8):69-73
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Differential diagnosis of ascites in internal medicine: clinical case

Tikhonov I.N., Zharkova M.S., Maevskaya M.V., Zozulya V.N., Leschenko V.I., Nekrasova T.P., Arslanyan M.G., Musina N.P., Tatarkina M.A., Rzaev R.T., Puzakov K.B., Ivashkin V.T., Malikova M.S.


Ascites and hydrothorax may be the symptoms of congestive heart failure and do not always reflects presense of the decompensated liver cirrhosis. Clinical examination of patient with chronic hepatitis C which cyanosis of the lips, cervival veins pulsation, a triple heart rhythm indicated on pathology of the heart (constrictive pericarditis), which was confirmed by instrumental methods. Congestive heart failure has lead to the congestive liver in a young female patient. Regression of all the symptoms of heart failure occurred after surgical treatment (pericardectomy).
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(8):74-80
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Pharmacotherapy of chronic pancreatitis in terms of current clinical recommendations

Maev I.V., Bideeva T.B., Kucheryavyy Y.A., Andreev D.N., Bueverov A.O.


The article reflects the main positions of the latest Russian and pan-European clinical recommendations on the diagnosis and treatment of chronic pancreatitis (CP), devoted to the pharmacotherapy of this disease. The main objectives of pharmacotherapy for CP are to reduce or arrest pain abdominal syndrome and prevent or compensate for functional pancreatic insufficiency.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(8):81-85
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Inhibition of HIF-prolyl 4-hydroxylases as a promising approach to the therapy of cardiometabolic diseases

Aitbaev K.A., Murkamilov I.T., Fomin V.V.


Prolyl-4-hydroxylases of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-P4Hs) are enzymes that, under the conditions of normoxia, cause degradation of the HIF-transcriptional protein, which regulates a number of metabolic processes, including erythropoiesis, glucose level and lipid metabolism. In hypoxic conditions, on the contrary, their activity is suppressed and HIF stabilization takes place. This mechanism, i.e. stabilization of HIF by inhibition of HIF-P4Hs was the basis for the development of drugs designed for treatment of renal anemia, which are currently in stages 2 and 3 of clinical trials and are showing encouraging results. Recently, it has also been reported that inhibition of HIF-P4Hs can be effective in treatment of cardiometabolic diseases - coronary heart disease, hypertension, obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetic cardiomyopathy and atherosclerosis. The review, based on the most recent data, discusses in detail molecular mechanisms of therapeutic effect of HIF-P4Hs inhibition in these pathological conditions and provides evidence that these mechanisms are associated with HIF stabilization and gene expression, improving perfusion and endothelial function, reprogramming metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to anaerobic glycolysis, reducing inflammation and having beneficial effect on the innate immune system.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(8):86-94
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NSAID-induced enteropathy: the current state of the problem

Svistunov A.A., Osadchuk M.A., Kireeva N.V., Hudarova A.A., Achkasov E.E.


The review analyzes the main etiological and pathogenetic mechanisms of the development of NSAID-enteropathy. Particular attention is paid to the role of intestinal microbiota in the manifestation and progression of NSAID-enteropathy. The special role of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of NSAIDs enteropathy is considered.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(8):95-100
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Cardiovascular safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases

Zavodovsky B.V., Sivordova L.E.


Rheumatic diseases (RD), such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, vasculitis, gout are associated with increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The main causes of increased cardiovascular risk are inflammatory heart and vascular lesions, accelerated progression of atherosclerosis and side effects of drug therapy. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used in clinical practice and are on the list of the most prescribed medications. It is known that NSAIDs have a negative effect on the cardiovascular system (CVS). However NSAIDs may decrease the intensity of inflammation, which is an independent risk risk factor for CVS pathology. Therefore in patients with RD it is theoretically possible to reduce the severity of cardiovascular side effects when using NSAIDs. The article discusses the issues of NSAID’s cardiovascular safety, the molecular mechanisms underlying the negative effect of them on CVS, critically evaluated the results of main studies concerning the cardiovascular safety of NSAIDs in chronic inflammatory diseases.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(8):101-106
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Variety of lung involvement in autoimmune liver diseases

Akulkina L.A., Brovko M.Y., Sholomova V.I., Rozina T.P., Yanakayeva A.S., Frantsuzevich L.Y., Lebedeva M.V., Fomin V.V.


The primary autoimmune liver diseases conventionally include primary biliary cholangitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis and autoimmune hepatitis. Despite of primary autoimmune affection of different parts of the hepatobiliary system, in the recent decades, a lot of data has emerged indicating the presence of extrahepatic manifestations of these diseases, in particular, lung lesions, such as nodular and interstitial changes with possible progression and development of fibrosis and respiratory failure. In case of lungs disease, both pulmonary parenchyma and lung vessels, pleura, and intrathoracic lymph nodes can be involved. The most sensitive and specific procedure to assess the extent of the lung lesions and their evolution is high-resolution computed tomography. Due to the possibility of long-term asymptomatic course of the pulmonary disease with development of irreversible changes in patients with autoimmune liver diseases, it seems reasonable to conduct screening studies aimed at early detection and treatment of lung lesions in this population.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(8):107-112
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Modern approaches to management of cardiovascular risk factors at patients with diabetes mellitus type 2

Verbovoy A.F., Pashentseva A.V., Verbovaya N.I., Madyanov I.V., Sharonova L.A., Galkin R.A.


Diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 is the serious progressing chronic disease representing independent risk factor of development of cardiovascular complications. The mortality from cardiovascular diseases at the persons suffering from DM type 2 continues to grow around the world, despite constant augmentation of expenses on treatment and prophylaxis. In this article factors of cardiovascular risk at DM are analyzed and possible ways of their correction are surveyed.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(8):113-117
pages 113-117 views

Problems of nociception in gastroesophageal reflux disease: diagnostics and treatment of irritated oesophagus

Sablin O.A., Ilchishina T.A.


The following factors of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) pathogenesis are addressed in the abstract: activation of nociceptors, hyperexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increase of functional activity of immune competent cells. The current classification of GERD is given which is based on identification of 4 phenotypes of the disease according to diagnostic criteria and prognosis of treatment effectiveness. Importance of pH-impedance monitoring in GERD diagnostics is demonstrated based on its primary significance for identification of reflux nature and determination of relationship between GERD symptoms and reflux. The diagnostics criteria of functional heartburn and hypersensitive oesophagus according to Rome IV criteria (2016) are presented. The data of the private investigation are demonstrated according to which irritated oesophagus was observed in 26.2% of healthy persons and in 24.2% of GERD patients with endoscopic or pH-metric symptoms of the disease. Implication of oesophagus clearance disorder in GERD pathogenesis has been pointed out. An overview of the current literature data about effectiveness of surgical treatment in patients with different GERD phenotypes and also assessment of clinical effectiveness of long-term treatment with PPI are given. Advantages of anti-secretory drug of the last generation rabeprazole in different patient groups and possibilities of its use in all GERD phenotypes have been discussed.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(8):118-124
pages 118-124 views

The prevalence of multimorbidity: discussion about the terminology, registration and its effect on patient’s health care utilization

Chukayeva I.I., Samorodskaya I.V., Larina V.N.


The purpose of the present review is to bring into focus the issues regarding terminological and registration aspects of multimorbidity we come across in the modern literature. Key questions regarding the definitions for the most widely used terms «comorbidity», «polymorbidity» and «multimorbidity» are discussed. We also considered the aspects of their origin and distinctive features between the concepts. The interaction between illnesses can exacerbate one another, modify the clinical picture and course of illnesses, the nature and severity of complications, lead to a progressive worsening of the prognosis and quality of life in patients. It has been proposed that the terms of “comorbidity» (in case of presence of the pathogenesis interrelation) or “polimorbidity» (in case of absence of the pathogenesis interrelation) are the most appropriate diagnostic and treatment patterns for practice and epidemiological study. «Multimorbidity» seems to be a more appropriate term for clinical practice usage, because it involves not only diagnosis but also interaction between diagnosises, symptoms/syndromes, the mobility or self-care problems et al. The algorithm of the managing patients with multimorbidity is presented.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(8):125-130
pages 125-130 views

On respiratory manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease

Abrosimov V.N., Ponomareva I.B., Nizov A.A., Solodun M.V.


One of the manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is extraesophageal symptoms, in particular, from the upper and lower respiratory tract. Gastroesophageal reflux is capable of both causing respiratory symptoms independently and aggravating the course of already existing diseases of the respiratory system. The article presents available in the literature current information on the pathogenesis of GERD respiratory symptoms, their clinical course, considerations of diagnosis and treatment.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(8):131-136
pages 131-136 views

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