Vol 90, No 6 (2018)

Editorial
What we do and do not know about women and kidney diseases; Questions unanswered and answers unquestioned: Reflection on World Kidney Day and International Woman’s Day
Piccoli G.B., Alrukhaimi M., Zhi-Hong L., Zakharova E., Levin A.
Abstract
On behalf of the World Kidney Day Steering Committee Chronic kidney disease affects approximately 10% of the world’s adult population: it is within the top 20 causes of death worldwide, and its impact on patients and their families can be devastating. World Kidney Day and International Women’s Day in 2018 coincide, thus offering an opportunity to reflect on the importance of women’s health and specifically their kidney health, on the community, and the next generations, as well as to strive to be more curious about the unique aspects of kidney disease in women so that we may apply those learnings more broadly. Girls and women, who make up approximately 50% of the world’s population, are important contributors to society and their families. Gender differences continue to exist around the world in access to education, medical care, and participation in clinical studies. Pregnancy is a unique state for women, offering an opportunity for diagnosis of kidney disease, but also a state where acute and chronic kidney diseases may manifest, and which may impact future generations with respect to kidney health. There are various autoimmune and other conditions that are more likely to impact women with profound consequences for child bearing, and on the fetus. Women have different complications on dialysis than men, and are more likely to be donors than recipients of kidney transplants. In this editorial, we focus on what we do and do not know about women, kidney health, and kidney disease, and what we might learn in the future to improve outcomes worldwide.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(6):4-14
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Relationship between serologic profile (ANCA type) and clinical features of renal involvement in ANCA-associated vasculitides
Bulanov N.M., Makarov E.A., Shchegoleva E.M., Zykova A.S., Vinogradova E.S., Novikov P.I., Lysenko(Kozlovskaya) L.V., Moiseev S.V.
Abstract
Objective. To compare the frequency, clinical features and outcomes of renal involvement in ANCA-associated vasculitides (AAV) in patients with antibodies against proteinase-3 (pr3-ANCA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO-ANCA). Materials and methods. In our retrospective study we enrolled 264 patients, 94 males and 170 females, median age 53 [36; 62] years. Among them 157 were pr3-ANCA positive and 107 were MPO-ANCA positive. AAV was diagnosed according to ACR criteria and Chapel Hill consensus conference definition (2012). Median follow up was 44 [18; 93] months. We assessed baseline BVAS and VDI by the end of the follow up. Serum creatinine (sCr), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), hematuria and daily proteinuria were estimated. Diagnosis and stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and acute kidney injury (AKI) were established according to KDIGO guidelines (2012) and Scientific Society of Russian Nephrologists (2016). Results. Renal involvement was present in 181 (68.6%) patients, and its frequency was similar in pr3-ANCA and MPO-ANCA subgroups. Patients with MPO-ANCA developed rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and hypertension significantly more often than patients with pr3-ANCA: 50.7% vs 35.6% (p=0.049) and 46.1% vs 29.8% (p=0.029) respectively. At disease onset, median sCr was significantly higher and eGFR was significantly lower in patients with MPO-ANCA (p<0.05). 1-year and 5-year renal survival rates were similar in pr3-ANCA-positive (93.9% and 87.4% respectively) and MPO-ANCA positive patients (87.4% and 83.1% respectively). Median BVAS and VDI scores were significantly higher in pr3-ANCA subgroup. The number of patients who developed AAV relapse during 1-year follow up was also significantly higher in pr3-ANCA subgroup. The frequency of eye and ENT involvement was significantly higher in pr3-ANCA positive patients than in MPO-ANCA-positive patients. Conclusions: The frequency of extrarenal manifestations, clinical features of renal involvement and relapse rate are associated with AAV serotype.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(6):15-21
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The impact of therapeutic plasma exchange and double filtration plasmapheresis on hemostasis in renal transplant recipients
Vatazin A.V., Zulkarnaev A.B.
Abstract
Aim. To investigate the impact of double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) and therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) on hemostasis in renal transplant recipients. Materials and methods. 54 renal transplant patients with an acute humoral rejection were treated with therapeutic apheresis methods: 24 patients with DFPP and 30 patients with TPE. In all patients was performed 3-4 session. We analyzed international normalized ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen concentration and platelet count just before and after each session, and after the course of all procedures. After TPE plasma replacement was performed with an equivalent volume of a fresh frozen plasma. After DFPP was performed 10-20% albumin solution. Results and discussion. After each DFPP session was occurred an increased INR and aPTT. After course of all DFPP procedures fibrinogen level decreased by 46%. It was associated with increase of APTT and INR by 35% and 32% respectively. Mainly it was associated with dose of the procedures (volume of plasma perfusion), but not with the plasma separator type. One patient noted hemorrhagic complication. After each TPE session level of fibrinogen concentration, INR and aPPT remained in the normal range, but there was a moderate reduction in platelet count, more pronounced than during DFPP. Hemorrhagic complications were not. Conclusion. Double cascade plasmapheresis and therapeutic plasma exchange generate preconditions for hemorrhagic complications such as increased aPTT and INR, reduce fibrinogen concentration. However, bleeding complications are rare. At the same time, during high volume DFPP should be careful when initially level of fibrinogen is low. In this case fibrinogen concentration should be controlled after the procedure for timely replenishment of its deficit.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(6):22-27
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Atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome as one of the causes of acute kidney injury in pregnant women
Kozlovskaya N.L., Korotchaeva Y.V., Shifman E.M., Bobrova L.A.
Abstract
Obstetric atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is one of the reasons for the development of acute kidney injury (AKI) and can determine the prognosis of both mother and child. Aim. Analysis of clinical manifestations, course and outcomes of obstetric aHUS. Materials and methods. 45 patients with aHUS development during pregnancy or immediately after childbirth were observed between 2011 and 2017, age from 16 to 42 years. Results and discussion. All patients had AKI (serum creatinine 521,5±388,0 µmol/l, oliguria or anuria that required initiation of hemodialysis). 93.3% pts had extrarenal manifestations of TMA with the development of multiple organ failure (MOF). The mean number of damage organs was 3,7±1,2. In all patients, the development of aHUS was preceded by obstetric complications, surgery, infection, etc. In the outcome: 53.4% women showed complete recovery of renal function, 11.1% developed CKD 4-5 stages, 35.5% had dialysis-dependent end-stage renal failure (ESDR). Maternal mortality was 23.9%. Perinatal mortality was 32.6%. The early start of eculizumab treatment (within 1-2 weeks from the onset of aHUS), compared with therapy start after 3 weeks, increased the chances of favorable outcome for mother in 5.33 times, and the chances for normalization of renal function in 48.7 times. Conclusion. Obstetric aHUS is characterized by the development of AKI in 100% of cases. In most patients, the obstetric aHUS occurs with the development of MOF. Timely diagnosis of aHUS and immediate treatment by eculizumab allows not only to save the life of patients, but also completely restore their health.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(6):28-34
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Cardiorenal syndrome in the early stages of coronary bypass surgery
Kremneva L.V., Abaturova O.V., Efanov A.Y., Shalaev S.V.
Abstract
Aim: evaluate the frequency and risk factors of postoperative atrial fibrillation (pAF) in patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CHD) with acute kidney injury (AKI) developed in connection with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Materials and methods. The study involved 90 patients (pts) undergoing CABG at age 58±7 years, duration of CHD - 6±6 years. 80% of pts had previous myocardial infarction. Chronic heart failure, functional class II was detected in 53.3% pts, functional class III - in 46.7% pts. Multi-vessel coronary lesions had 75.6% pts. CABG with cardiopulmonary bypass was performed in 88.9% pts, operation on a beating heart was fulfilled in 11.1% pts. Creatinine was determined by Jaffe method, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated with the СКD-EPI formula. AKI was diagnosed according to KDIGO criteria, 2012. Results and discussion. The frequency of transient AKI after CABG was 33.3%, pAF - 17.8 %, pAF among those with AKI was 20%. The development of AKI was associated with higher levels of troponin T after CABG (Me [25; 75 percentiles] - 0.36 [0.24; 0.99] versus 0.28 [0.11; 0.50] ng/ml; p=0.037), with more frequent use of inotropic drugs (60% and 25%; p=0.002), longer duration of inotropic therapy (2.0 [1.0; 2.5] versus 1.0 [0; 1.0] days; p=0.001). The proportion of patients who had pAF among those with AKI and without it were not significantly different (20% and 16.7%; p=0.7). Decrease in GFR less than 39 [29.8; 45.7] ml/min/1.73 m2 after CABG was the most important risk factor of pAF in pts with CHD and AKI.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(6):35-40
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Serum uromodulin as an early biomarker of tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis in patients with glomerulopathies
Smirnov A.V., Khasun M., Kayukov I.G., Galkina O.V., Sipovski V.G., Parastaeva M.M., Bogdanova E.O.
Abstract
Aim. To assess the significance of the serum uromodulin (Tamm-Horsfall protein - THP) concentration (Sumo) as an early biomarker of tubular atrophy (TA) and interstitial renal fibrosis (IF) in patients with glomerulopathies. Materials and methods. 84 patients with glomerulopathy and 11 practically healthy persons (control) were examined. Uromodulin concentrations in serum and urine (Uumo) were measured, renal excretion of this protein and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were established. A semi-quantitative assessment of nephrobioptates was performed. Results and discussion. Sumo decreases with a minimum expression of tubular atrophy (TA) or interstitial fibrosis (IF), when the values of eGFR still remain normal. Variations of such excretory parameters of THP as Uumo, daily excretion, and ratio: urinary uromodulin / urinary creatinine, did not manifest a similar trend. Conclusion. Sumo is promising as an early biomarker of fibrotic and atrophic renal damage. The parameters of renal excretion of THP do not seem to have this property. The reason for the delay in the decline of Uumo in the progression of CKD as compared to the decrease in Sumo seems to be the need to maintain a sufficient Uumo to counteract urinary tract infection and stone formation.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(6):41-47
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Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) / soluble Klotho protein (sKlotho) / sclerostin glycoprotein ratio disturbance is a novel risk factor for cardiovascular complications in ESRD patients receiving treatment with regular hemodialysis or hemodiafiltration
Milovanova L.Y., Dobrosmyslov I.A., Milovanov Y.S., Fomin V.V., Taranova M.V., Kozlov V.V., Milovanova S.Y., Kozevnikova E.I.
Abstract
Aim of the study was to explore the role of the FGF-23/sKlotho/sclerostin ratio disturbance in the determining of cardiovascular risk in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, receiving treatment with regular hemodialysis (НD) or hemodiafiltration (НDF) online in Russia. Materials and methods. 42 patients with ESRD, at the age of 18-55 years, treated with HD or HDF on line for at least 6 months, were examined. 22 (52.3%) patients received traditional HD, the remaining 20 (47.7%) - HDF online. In all the patients, in addition to a general examination, the serum levels of FGF-23, sKlotho, sclerostine (by ELISA), their associations with cardiovascular risk factors (left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), acute coronary syndrome (ACS), serum troponin I levels) with the numbers of techniques (ECG; Eho-CGF (with calculation of left ventricular myocardium mass index (LVMMI), as well as the relative thickness of the walls of the left ventricle (RWT); sphygmography (central (aortal) blood pressure (CBP), subendocardial blood flow (SBF) - by «Sphygmocor»), and the effect of regular HD and HDF on serum levels of the studied markers, were assessed. Results and discussion. An independent effect of FGF-23 on the risk of LVH, as well as on the increase of serum troponin I in the studied ESRD patients [β=3.576 p<0.01, and β=1.115, p<0.05, respectively] was found. Serum Klotho was the factor most associated with the CBP [β=-0.023; p<0.001]. The increased serum sclerostin was correlated with a lower incidence of both reduced SBF [r=0.492; p<0.05], symptoms of coronary heart disease [r=-0.449; p<0.05] and rhythm disturbances [r=-0.446; p<0.05]. In addition, in HD patients higher FGF-23 and lower Klotho and sclerostine serum levels were associated with: inadequate dialysis syndrome (Kt/V <1.1; r=0.463; p<0.05), chronic inflammation (C-reactive protein >10 mg/L; r=0.612; p<0.01), and with a decrease in serum albumin level (<35 g/l; r=0.459; p<0.05). The FGF-23/sKlotho/sclerostin ratio disturbance was more pronounced in patients treated with traditional HD then HDF online. A direct correlation (r=0.445; p<0.05) was established between FGF-23 serum levels and serum phosphorus, which was more pronounced in HD patients (r=0.545; p<0.01). Conclusion. In HD and HDF ESRD patients, higher serum FGF-23 and lower sKlotho and sclerostin levels were associated with a chronic inflammation, malnutrition, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and may considered as predictors of cardiovascular complications such as LVH, ACS, rhythm disturbances, persisting of subincreased serum troponin I.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(6):48-54
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Clinical features of kidney involvement in microscopic microscopic polyangiitis
Shchegoleva E.M., Bulanov N.M., Novikov P.I., Moiseev S.V.
Abstract
Aim. To evaluate clinical features and outcomes of renal involvement in patients with microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). Materials and methods: We enrolled 99 patients with MPA, diagnosed in accordance with the algorithm of the European Medicines Evaluation Agency (EMEA) and the Chapel Hill consensus conference definition (2012). Serum creatinine (sCr), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), hematuria and proteinuria were estimated. Frequency of rapidly progressive renal failure (a twofold increase in the sCr level in ≤3 months) was regarded as the clinical equivalent of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN). Results and discussion. Renal involvement was present in 92 (92.9%) patients. RPGN developed in 51 (55,4%) patients. The most common features of kidney involvement were hematuria and subnephrotic proteinuria. Arterial hypertension was revealed in 32 (34.7%) patients and was associated with RPGN (p<0.004). End-stage renal disease (ESRD) developed in 11 (11.9%) patients. Despite effective induction therapy disease relapses occurred in 20 (21.1%) patients during the 1st year, including renal relapses in 12 (13.3%) cases. During 5-year follow up 34 (37.1%) patients developed disease relapses, including renal relapses in 22 (24.4%) patients. Conclusion. Renal involvement is one of the most common manifestations of MPA with a high frequency of RPGN. More than one third of patients develop disease relapses despite adequate therapy.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(6):55-58
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Renal effects of glucagon-like peptide receptor agonists in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus
Vikulova O.K., Zuraeva Z.T., Michaleva O.V., Nikankina L.V., Shamkhalova M.S., Shestakova M.V., Dedov I.I.
Abstract
The purpose of our study is to assess the effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1R agonists) on early markers of kidney damage in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). Materials and methods. The study included 27 patients with type 1 diabetes with normo- (n=16) and microalbuminuria (n=11) on intensive insulin injection regimen with insulin analogs. Patients were divided into two groups: 15 patients continued insulin therapy throughout the follow-up period, 12 patients were given 1.2 mg GLP-1R agonist (Liraglutide) once a day in addition to the insulin therapy for 6 months. HbA1c, lipid profile, classic markers of kidney damage (albuminuria, creatinine, glomerular filtration rate); plazma (neutrophilic gelatinase-associated lipoxalin - NGAL, molecule renal damage of type 1 - KIM-1, cystatin C, osteopontin) and urinary kidney biomarkers (nephrin, podocyne, uromodulin, NGAL, KIM-1, collagen type IV, cystatin C) were evaluated prior and in dynamics at 6 months. Kidney biomarkers levels were assessed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results. We observed a significant decrease in the urinary excretion of type IV collagen, cystatin C, increased uromodulin excretion and decrease in the plasma levels of osteopontin, NGAL and cystatin C in the group of combined insulin and GLP-1R agonist therapy. Conclusions. Changes in the level of sensitive kidney biomarkers indicate a possible renoprotective effect of GLP-1R agonist therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes at an early stages of kidney damage.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(6):59-64
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Factors affecting the results of analgesic therapy. Results of the Russian multicentre study of NOTE (NSAID: Open-label Trial of Efficacy)
Karateev A.E., Pogozheva E.Y., Filatova E.A., Amirjanova V.N., Lila A.M., Antipova O.V., Babaeva A.R., Volkorezova A.V., Davydova A.F., Davtyan V.G., Zonova E.V., Ivanova O.N., Kalinina N.N., Kiseleva N.I., Knyazeva L.A., Kulikov A.I., Nesmeyanova O.B., Mazurov V.I., Masneva L.V., Menshikova L.V., Obuhova I.V., Otteva E.N., Salnikova T.S., Shchendrygin I.N., Yakupova S.P.
Abstract
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are most popular medications for the treatment of pain in common musculoskeletal diseases such as osteoarthritis (OA) and non-specific low back pain (LBP). However, the factors affecting the effectiveness of these drugs have not been determined fully. Aim: to identify factors affecting the effectiveness of NSAIDs in patients with OA and LBP. Materials and methods. An observational study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a 2-week course of NSAIDs in OA and LBP in real clinical practice. The study group consisted of 3604 patients with OA and LBP (60.6% women and 39.4% men, mean age 55.0±13.4 years). According to the study design, aceclofenac (Airtal) and other NSAIDs used in the ratio 1:1. The main criterion of effectiveness was the frequency of complete pain relief after 2 weeks of therapy. In addition, the decrease of pain and general health were determined on a 10-point numerical rating scale (NRS). We compared the frequency of complete pain relief in patients who had and did not have the studied factors. The value of the studied factors was determined using OR (95% CI). Results and discussion. Most patients received aceclofenac (54.9%), as well as diclofenac (2.0%), ketoprofen (1.9%), lornoxicam (2.2%), meloxicam (13.7%), naproxen (2.1%), nimesulide (5.8%), celecoxib (5.9%), ethicoxib (7.1%) and other NSAIDs (4.4%); 56.2% of patients received muscle relaxants, mainly tolperisone (74.7%), vitamin B (10.4%), and proton pump inhibitors (42.8%). Complete pain relief was achieved in 54.8% of patients. The pain decrease and general health improvement were (for NRS) 63.9±13.4% and 61.7±14.8%, respectively. The efficacy of aceclofenac was slightly higher than in the whole group: complete pain relief was in 59.9% of patients. Adverse events in aceclofenac use were observed in 2.3% of patients, other NSAIDs-from 2.4 to 14.1%. The frequency of complete pain relief was higher in men: OR 1,239 (95% CI 1.08-1.418; p=0.002), who had the first episode of pain - OR 3.341 (95% CI 2.873-3.875; p=0.000), a good" response " to NSAIDs in history - OR 1.656 (95% CI 1.385-1.980; p=0.000) and received NSAIDs in combination with muscle relaxants - OR 1.218 (95% CI 1.067-1.390; p=0.004). The effect of therapy is lower in patients 65 years and older-OR 0,378 (95% CI 0.324-0.442; p=0,000), with body mass index >30 kg/m² - OR 0.619 (95% CI 0.529-0.723; p=0.000), with severe pain (≥7 points NRS) - OR 0.662 (95% CI 0.580-0.756; p=0.002), with pain at rest, - OR 0.515 (95% CI 0.450-0,589; p=0.000), pain at night - OR 0.581 (95% CI 0.501-0.672; p=0.000) and the presence of stiffness - OR 0.501 (95% CI 0.438-0,573; p=0.000). Treatment results are significantly worse in the cases of combination of LBP and joint pain, as well as pain in the trochanter major and pes anserinus area (p<0.001). Conclusion. NSAIDs are the first-line medications for the pain treatment in LBP and OA. Aceclofenac is effective and safe in this conditions. When carrying out analgesic therapy should take into account factors that affect the effectiveness of treatment: old age, overweight, insufficient effect of NSAIDs in history, severe pain, signs of "inflammatory" pain, multiple sources of pain.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(6):65-73
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Efficacy and tolerability of certolizumab pegol in Crohn's disease in clinical practice
Knyazev O.V., Kagramanova A.V., Lishchinskaya A.A., Samsonova N.G., Orlova N.V., Rogozina V.A., Parfenov A.I.
Abstract
Aim. To assess the efficacy and tolerance of certolizumab pegol (CP) in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) treated in the Department of inflammatory bowel diseases of the A.S. Loginov Moscow Clinical Research Center and to determine the predictors of response to therapy. Materials and methods. All patients with CD who had received the treatment of CP were observed prospectively for at least 6 months or until the date of discontinuation of the drug. The effectiveness of the study was assessed response to therapy by the 6th week, maintaining the clinical response (6th and 26th weeks), the dynamics of endoscopic parameters by the 10th and 54th week of therapy, long-term maintenance of remission, healing fistula. Used univariant and multivariate analyses of predictors of response to treatment. Results and discussion. The study included 39 patients: 12 (30.7%) men and 27 (69.3%) female, the average duration of observation was 104 weeks. The interdepartmental range was in the range from 28 to 158 weeks. Clinical improvement occurred in 38 out of 39 (97.4 %) patients with CD. Comparative analysis of response to treatment with CP have bionaive patients previously treated with another inhibitor of TNF-α. In the group of bionaive response to therapy in a month, 6 months and at the end of the observation period occurred at 100.0%, 95.0% and 95.0%, respectively. In the group of patients previously treated with GSI, the response rate was about 94.4 %, 88.9 % and 77.7% week 54 endoscopic response and endoscopic remission was maintained in 46,2% and 30,1% patients, complete healing of the mucosa on the background of maintenance therapy, CP, was preserved in 20.5% of patients with Crohn's disease. In the group of patients with perianal lesions (n=13) complete closure of all fistulas was observed in 5 (38.6 %) patients, partial response was observed in 4 patients (30,7%) patients, in 4 (30.7 %) closure of fistulas occurred. The frequency of adverse events was 0 cases (0.0%). The dose escalation was required in 3 patients (7,7%) patients with CD. Dose escalation in our study required patients with high initial CDAI and previous inefficiencies of the other two inhibitors of TNF-α. Reliable predictors of secondary loss of response and need for dose escalation of the drug has been the continued level of CRP >5 mg/l after 2 weeks initiation of therapy CP and smoking. Conclusion. The obtained results demonstrate the efficacy and tolerability profile of CP appropriate for long-term CD therapy in real clinical practice.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(6):74-80
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Results of the post-registration clinical study “PARUS” on efficiency and safety assessment of Mydocalm-Richter for local injection therapy of a myofascial trigger zone
Devlikamova F.I.
Abstract
Aim. The “PARUS” program included investigation of the analgesic, muscle relaxant and sedative effects of Mydocalm-Richter which acts as central muscle relaxant in patients with myofascial pain syndrome, taking into account its registered indication for use - the hypertonus and cross-striated muscle spasm. Materials and methods. Fifty patients with myofascial trigger points, the mean age of 41.67±11.86 years, have been enrolled in the study. All patients had undergone clinical examination that allowed the diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome. The intensity of pain syndrome was evaluated using the pain visual analogue scales and McGill pain questionnaire. Visualization of area in spasm and evaluation of blood circulation was carried out using the ultrasound scan of target muscle. In order to objectively evaluate any conceivable hypotensive and sedative effects of Mydocalm-Richter we used the orthostatic test, Schulte’s test for attention span and perfor-mance distribution and Munsterberg’s test for attention discrimination and concentration. Results. The analgesic and muscle relaxant effects of Mydocalm-Richter become apparent by day 3 post-injection, and the muscle relaxation effect is reaching its maximum on day 10 post-injection. Cardiovascular function following administration of Mydocalm-Richter was evaluated using the orthostatic test which revealed good orthostatic tolerance. Single injection of tolperisone hydrochloride possessing a central muscle relaxant activity has no sedative effect and does not influence patient response time. The ultrasound examination data demonstrated the improvement and in some cases restoration of blood circulation in the myofascial trigger points. Conclusion. Clinical study “PARUS” conducted in patients with myofascial pain has demonstrated a positive muscle relaxant and analgesic effect of Mydocalm-Richter that resulted in restoration of peripheral circulation in the myofascial trigger pointsconfirmed by ultrasound examination. An important benefit of this drug product is the absence of sedative effect and arterial hypotension.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(6):81-88
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Quality of life of chronic kidney disease patients on renal replacement therapy
Milovanov Y.S., Dobrosmyslov I.A., Milovanova S.Y., Taranova M.V., Milovanova L.Y., Fomin V.V., Kozlov V.V.
Abstract
The study demonstrated the results of the comparative analysis of various types of renal replacement therapy effects on the quality of life patients with terminal stage of chronic kidney disease on the basis of standardized questionnaires. It has been shown that the quality of life is significantly improved after a kidney transplantation. At the same time, it has also been found that the introduction of home dialysis, epoetins, active metabolites of vitamin D, calcimimetics in the clinic care expanded the opportunities for the labor rehabilitation of the dialysis patients and made their quality of life comparable with the same of the kidney transplant recipients.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(6):89-91
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The role of podocytes dysfunction in chronic glomerulonephritis progression
Chebotareva N.V., Bobkova I.N., Lysenko L.V.
Abstract
In the review, the mechanisms of podocytes damage underlying the development of proteinuria and progression of glomerulosclerosis in chronic glomerulonephritis are discussed in detail. The results of experimental and clinical studies are presented. Under the different immune and non-immune factors the podocytes form a stereotyped response to damage consisting in the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, foot process effacement, the detachment of podocytes from the glomerular basement membrane, and the appearance of specific podocyte proteins and whole cells (podocyturia) in the urine. Massive podocyturia in a limited proliferative capacity of podocytes leads to reduce their total count in the glomerulus (podocytopenia) and the development of glomerulosclerosis. The authors describe the line of markers of the podocyte injury and invasive and non-invasive methods of their assessment. In addition, the relationship of podocyturia level with proteinuria and renal dysfunction are discussed, the prospects of assessment the podocyte proteins in urine for assessing of glomerular damage severity and glomerulosclerosis risk are examined.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(6):92-97
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Nephrological aspects of surgical weight correction in morbid obesity
Bobkova I.N., Gussaova S.S., Stavrovskaya E.V., Struve A.V.
Abstract
Obesity, including morbid obesity, is a growing worldwide problem. The adverse effect of obesity on the kidneys is associated with the development of comorbid conditions, such as insulin resistance (IR), metabolic syndrome (MS), diabetes mellitus (DM), arterial hypertension (AH), which are the recognized risk factors of chronic kidney disease (СKD). Obesity also causes direct kidney damage with the development of non-immune focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The leading pathophysiological mechanisms of kidney damage in obesity are intrarenal hemodynamic disorders with the formation of hyperfiltration and damaging effects of adipokines produced by adipose tissue. Bariatric surgery (BS) has taken a leading position in the treatment of morbid obesity, demonstrating its effectiveness not only in long-term weight loss, but also in the correction of IR, MS, DM, AH. Nephroprotective effect of significant and persistent weight loss is caused by the elimination of hyperfiltration and damaging effect of adipokines. Results of the observational studies of the immediate and long-term effects of BS have demonstrated positive renal outcomes, in particular, the decrease in albuminuria/proteinuria, the improvement or stabilization of glomerular filtration rate, the delay of end-stage renal failure development; surgical correction of body weight in dialysis patients with morbid obesity lets them realize subsequent kidney transplantation. Large, randomized prospective studies with a longer follow-up are needed; analysis of the long-term renal consequences of BS in obesity patients with pre-existing renal impairment, including dialysis patients, is required; stratification of the BS risk of renal complications (acute kidney damage, nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis) and effective strategy for managing these risks need to be developed.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(6):98-104
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Genetic determinants of the development and course of membranous nephropathy
Kamyshova E.S., Bobkova I.N., Gorelova I.A., Kakhsurueva P.A., Filatova E.E.
Abstract
Membranous nephropathy (MN) is one of the most common causes of nephrotic syndrome in adults and is classified as either primary (idiopatic) or secondary MN according to underlying etiology (the later result from some known disease such as systemic autoimmune diseases, infections, malignancies, drugs, etc). In recent years, phospholipase A2 receptor 1 (PLA2R) and thrombospondin type-1 domain-containing 7A (THSD7A) were identified as two major podocytic antigens involved in the pathogenesis of idiopatic MN (IMN). And the discovery of circulating antibodies specific for these target antigens has transformed the diagnostic workup and significally improved management of IMN. However why do such antibodies develop is not conclusively established. The role of underlying genetic factors is discussed. The review presents the results of recent studies, that have shown significant associations of specific genetic factors (particularly human leucocyte antigen class II and PLA2R1 genes) with IMN.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(6):105-111
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HCV-associated mixed cryoglobulinemia and b-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma - pathogenetically related problems
Milovanova S.Y., Lysenko (Kozlovskaya) L.V., Milovanova L.Y., Mrykhin N.N., Russkih A.V., Muchin N.A.
Abstract
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global population problem due to its high prevalence, usually late diagnosis, the difficulties of treatment. In the prognosis of patients with HCV not only hepatic, but increasingly frequent of extrahepatic HCV manifestations, such as mixed cryoglobulinemia (CG), are important. Mixed CG is currently considered as a B-cell benign lymphoproliferative disorders. The role of HCV virus in the pathogenesis of lymphoproliferative diseases is confirmed by a large number of epidemiological studies, as well as by the effectiveness of antiviral therapy in patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). The purpose of the review was to provide an overview of recent literature data and the meta-analysis of epidemiological data explaining the role of HCV in the development of NHL. The review also discusses the treatment for HCV-associated NHL by antiviral therapy or other therapeutic options, such as chemotherapy.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(6):112-120
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Chronic kidney disease as a multidisciplinary problem of contemporary medicine
Podzolkov V.I., Bragina A.E.
Abstract
A review deals with the problem of chronic kidney disease (CKD) from the position of a physician and cardiologist. The epidemiology of the disease was discussed both abroad and in Russia, including the most up-to-date data. In Russia CKD markers were detected in 49.4% of hypertensives. Authors describe risk factors and mechanisms of CKD at the most important pathogenetic conditions: hypertension, diabetes and obesity. The current classification and methods for calculating the glomerular filtration rate are given. The review disclose a paradigm of the renal continuum and its relation to cardiovascular diseases. It is well known fact that the final causes of the death of patients with CKD, as a rule, are cardiovascular complications. Based on the literature data, the necessity and expediency of screening for renal dysfunction is justified. In the example of use of an angiotensin receptor blocker II - irbesartan nephroprotective demonstrated possibilities of intervention in patients with renal dysfunction of varying severity.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(6):121-129
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Atypical Goodpasture’s disease: a clinical case report and literature review
Bulanova M.L., Potapov D.V., Bulanov N.M., Lysenko(Kozlovskaya) L.V.
Abstract
Goodpasture’s disease (anti-GBM disease) is a rare small vessels vasculitis characterized by the presence of autoantibodies directed against the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and alveolar basement membrane. Common feature of anti-GBM disease is a combination of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and alveolar hemorrhage (pulmonary-renal syndrome). We present a case of atypical disease course in a young male patient who developed alveolar hemorrhage without renal failure. The only symptom of renal involvement was isolated hematuria. Plasmapheresis combined with immunosuppression (cyclophosphamide and corticosteroids) was effective. We present a review of state-of-art data on the pathogenesis and disease course of anti-GBM disease.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2018;90(6):130-136
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