Vol 86, No 7 (2014)

Editorial
Russian experts' clinical guidelines for acute myeloid leukemia treatment in patients less than 60 years of age
Savchenko V.G., Parovichnikova E.N., Afanas'ev B.V., Gritsaev S.V., Semochkin S.V., Bondarenko S.N., Troitskaia V.V., Sokolov A.N., Kuz'mina L.A., Kliasova G.A., Baranova O.I., Lapin V.A., Konstantinova T.S., Samoĭlova O.S., Kaporskaia T.S., Shatokhin S.V.
Abstract
The purpose of the paper is to present Russian experts' consolidated opinion about acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treatment in adult patients aged less than 60 years. The guidelines have been elaborated having regard to foreign publications and Russian experience, on the basis of global and Russian clinical trials to treat AML and to define indications for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in patients during first complete remission.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2014;86(7):4-13
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Treating patients with acute myeloid leukemias (AML) according to the protocol of the AML-01.10 Russian multicenter randomized trial: the Coordinating Center's results
Parovichnikova E.N., Troitskaia V.V., Kliasova G.A., Kuz'mina L.A., Sokolov A.N., Paramonova E.V., Galstian G.M., Kessel'man S.A., Drokov M.I., Vasil'eva V.A., Obukhova T.N., Kulikov S.M., Savchenko V.G.
Abstract
AIM. To make a randomized comparison of 2 consolidation treatment options (two patient groups): 2 cycles of cytarabine in average (1g/m2 in Group 2) and standard (100 mg/m2 in Group 1) doses in combination with idarubicin (8-12 mg/m2) and mitoxantrone (10 mg/m2), after two 7+3 induction cycles of daunorubicin (60 mg/m2) and subsequent 6 cycles of maintenance therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS. In January 2010 to October 2013, a Russian multicenter trial was conducted to treat patients with acute myeloid leukemias (AML) in accordance with the AML-01.10 protocol (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01587430). The trial enrolled 243 AML patients from 21 centers, including 71 patients (median age 38 years) from the State Hematology Center, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation; 35 and 36 patients were randomized to Groups 1 and 2, respectively. The randomized groups were balanced by basic clinical and laboratory parameters. Favorable, intermediate, and high cytogenetic prognoses were in 14 (21.9%), 40 (62.5%), and 10 (15.6%) patients, respectively. RESULTS. Prior to treatment, 2 patients died; one patient refused treatment. Fifty-eight (85.3%) of the 68 patients achieved complete remission (CR); early deaths was in 2 (2.9%) and resistance in 8 (11.8%). Four (6.9%) patients died during CR. Protocol deviations (doses, intervals, and the number of cycles) were recorded in 12 (20.7%) of the 58 patients. Other 8 (11.8%) patients were switched to low-dose cytarabine because of complications, withdrawn from the protocol and not included into the analysis of randomized comparison. Twenty allogeneic bone marrow transplantations (allo-BMT) (7 related, 12 unrelated, and 1 haploidentical) were performed; of them 15 allo-BMTs were done during first CR. In the 68 patients, 3-year overall survival (OS) was 45.6%; relapse-free survival (RFS) was 41.5%. OS was 64.6% in Group 1 and 58.3% in Group 2; RFS was 62 and 38.8% in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (p>0.5). In the favorable, intermediate, and high prognosis groups, OS was 79.5, 60, and 31.1% and RFS was 81.8, 41.3, and 33.3%, respectively (p=0.1). The consolidation treatment option unchanged survival rates in the above risk groups. Unachieved CR after the first cycle considerably decreased RFS (33.9% versus 60%) and served as an indication for allo-BMT during first CP (RFS without BMT was 0; that with BMT was 78%). CONCLUSION. No differences were found between both consolidation options according to long-term RESULTS. Protocol deviations were recorded in one-third of the patients. While implementing the protocol, the efficiency of treatment was high. Allo-BMT during first CR substantially increased RFS if CP was not achieved after the first cycle.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2014;86(7):14-23
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Incidence of chronic myeloid leukemia in 6 regions of Russia according to the data of the 2009-2012 population-based study
Kulikov S.M., Vinogradova O.I., Chelysheva E.I., Tishchenko I.A., Galaĭko M.A., Lazareva O.V., Senderova O.M., Pepeliaeva V.M., Meresiĭ S.V., Luchinin A.S., Ovsepian V.A., Miliutina G.I., Gavrilova L.V., Avdeeva L.B., Neverova A.L., Turkina A.G.
Abstract
AIM. To assess the main epidemiological characteristics of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in the Russian Federation. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A planned epidemiological prospective study was conducted in 2009-2012 in 6 Russian regions with the total number of 10.1 million inhabitants, which notified all new CML cases. RESULTS. The unstandardized (unnormalized, baseline) recorded incidence of CML in the examined regions was 0.58 per 100,000 annually. Its standardized (normalized) incidence was 0.70 for the WHO standard population and 0.72 for the European standard population. The regional variations in the incidence were 0.44 to 0.69. The structural analysis of the incidence in the age strata indicated that the overall morbidity was less due to the decreased rate of registration in old age groups. The morbidity rates in patients aged less than 60 years were nearly similar to the European rates; those in patients aged over 70 years were almost 10 times lower. The lower rate of detection and screening diagnosis of CML in pensioners in primary health care is discussed. CONCLUSION. The data obtained in this study may serve as the starting point for monitoring the CML epidemiological situation.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2014;86(7):24-30
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Selection of an unrelated donor for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. HLA haplotypes in patients with blood system diseases
Khamaganova E.G., Parovichnikova E.N., Kuz'mina L.A., Gemdzhian É.G., Chugreeva T.P., Iushkova A.A.
Abstract
AIM. To study the distribution of HLA-А*-B*-C*-DRB1*-DQB1* haplotypes in patients with blood system diseases, to establish the most common HLA haplotypes, and to compare the findings with the data on the frequency and distribution of the highest-frequency HLA haplotypes in donors of a number of leading registries. MATERIALS AND METHODS. In 2008-2012, the Hematology Research Center, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, examined 203 patients with blood system diseases who needed allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and their 386 blood relatives. Typing ascertained the kind of HLA haplotype in all the patients. Among the patients, there were 97 men who were aged 17 to 64 years (median 38 years) and 106 women who were aged 18 to 59 years (median 40 years). RESULTS. The examinees were found to have 265 different HLA haplotypes. There were 21 high-frequency HLA haplotypes; of them 7 belonged to 10 HLA haplotypes that are most frequent in the representatives of the Caucasoid race. Nearly 30% of the patients who needed allo-HSCT and had no HLA-identical siblings had HLA haplotypes out of the 10 ones that are most common in the representatives of the Caucasoids and thus could expect to find a compatible unrelated donor for a short time. The examinees were found to have a wide variety of HLA haplotypes (265 types in 203 persons). This variety, as well as the extreme polymorphism of HLA alleles, shows that there should be large registries of HLA-typed bone marrow donors in the country. These registries increase the chance to find a HLA-compatible unrelated donor for a short time for a patient with blood disease who has an indication for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The performed study supported that there were regional features in the distribution of HLA haplotypes within the same ethnic group. CONCLUSION. The chance to find a HLA-compatible donor for Russian patients in the large national registry that accumulates donors from different regional populations is substantially higher than that in the foreign registries. To create large cohorts of HLA-typic bone marrow donors from different regions of the country will substantially increase the chance of patients with blood system diseases to find a HLA-compatible unrelated donor.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2014;86(7):31-36
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Synchronous and metachronous myeloid and lymphoid tumors
Melikian A.L., Kolosheĭnova T.I., Goriacheva S.R., Subortseva I.N., Vakhrusheva M.V., Kolosova E.N., Sudarikov A.B., Abdullaev A.O., Dvirnyk V.N., Varlamova E.I., Kovrigina A.M., Turkina A.G.
Abstract
AIM. To determine the clinical features of multiple primary tumors (MPT) in patients with hemoblastoses, to develop treatment policy for synchronous and metachronous tumors, and to determine the impact of chemotherapy for one disease on the course and prognosis of another one. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The investigation included 20 patients with multiple primary synchronous and metachronous myeloid and lymphoid tumors, who had been followed up at the Outpatient Department of the Hematology Research Center, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation. The distribution of patients by nosological entities was as follows: 17 (85%) patients with myeloproliferative diseases (MPDs) concurrent with lymphoproliferative diseases (LPDs) and 3 (15%) with two types of MPD. A special group comprised 3 patients who successively developed 3 malignant diseases: cancer/B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL)/Ph-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (Ph+CML); cancer/polycythemia vera (PCV)/B-CLL; cancer/essential thrombocythemia (ETC)/multiple myeloma (MM). RESULTS. The Outpatient Department of the Hematology Research Center, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, followed up 20 patients with synchronous and metachronous tumors in 1996 to 2013. The patients' age was 42 to 82 years (64 years). The female/male ratio was 1:1.2. Metachronous tumors were 1.5-fold higher than synchronous ones. The time to detection of secondary hemoblastosis averaged 3.3 years; the longest interval was 14 years; the mean coexistence of 2 tumors was 4.8 years (1-11 years). The total length of the follow-up was 8 years (1-19 years). Among them, there were 17 (85%) patients with 2 chronic hematologic tumors with a myeloid or lymphoid phenotype; 3 (15%) of the 20 patients had 3 malignant diseases (cancer/ B-CLL)/Ph+CML, cancer/PCV/B-CLL, cancer/ETC/MM. In the group of 17 patients, 13 (76%) were diagnosed as having Ph-negative MPDs (PCV in 4 patients, primary myelofibrosis in 4, ETC in 4, undifferentiated MPD in1) and 4 (24%) patients had Ph+CML. This patient group was found to have the following LPDs: CLL in 5 (30%), hairy cell leukemia in 1 (5%), paraproteinemic hemoblastoses in 11 (65%). MPD preceded LPD in 8 (47%) patients; the development interval between two tumors averaged 6 years (1 to 14 years). LPD preceded MPD in 3 (18%) patients; the interval averaged 5 years (2 to 17 years). MPD and LPD appeared synchronously in 6 (35%) patients. CONCLUSION. The fact that 2 malignancies or more may occur in one patient determines the need for a careful follow-up of patients with blood system diseases. The activity of one hematologic disease or another is a leading criterion for choosing a therapeutic tactic.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2014;86(7):37-44
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Heterogeneity of acute myeloid leukemia with the translocation t(8;21)(q22;q22)
Gritsaev S.V., Martynkevich I.S., Ziuzgin I.S., Kariagina E.V., Martynenko L.S., Petrova E.V., Tsybakova N.I., Ivanova M.P., Kostroma I.I., Tiranova S.A., Potikhonova N.A., Abdulkadyrov K.M.
Abstract
AIM. To characterize the clinical and hematological variability of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with t(8;21) and to identify the signs associated with the likelihood of its relapse. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The results of examining 44 patients aged 11 to 70 years were analyzed; the efficiency of treatment was evaluated in 36. Their karyotypes were studied using the standard GTG method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed to assess the mutational status of the FLT3, NPM1, NRAS and c-Kit genes. Qualitative PCR was used to reveal the chimeric transcript RUNX1/RUNX1T1. RESULTS. The M2 variant was verified using the French-American-British classification in 82% of cases. One patient was diagnosed with secondary AML. Additional chromosomal aberrations were found in 50% of the patients. The most common breakages were loss of one of the sex chromosomes (34.1%) and damage of chromosome 9 (16.6%). Gene mutations were detected in single cases. Following 2 7+3 induction chemotherapy (CT) cycles, complete remission (CR) was achieved in 97% of cases (3 patients with cytopenia died). Eight (25%) patients developed a relapse mainly within the first 7 months after achieving CR. The characteristic signs of relapse cases were the inefficiency of the first cycle of remission induction (RI), the absence of high-dose consolidation, damage of chromosome 9, D816V mutation in exone 17 of the c-Kit gene. Antirecurrent CT was ineffective in 5 patients. The median overall survival (OS) in patients with early recurrence was 10 months. That in the patients who were recorded to have CR was not achieved; 5-year OS was 57.8%. Chromosome 9 aberration was ascertained to have a negative impact on OS parameters (p=0.003). CONCLUSION. Patients with AML with t(8;21) is a group heterogeneous with respect to age, the morphological nature of blast cells, the pattern of the disease, the presence and type of additional chromosomal aberrations, mutations in individual genes, and clinical course. Those who are unresponsive to the first RI cycle and have additional chromosome 9 damages should be regarded as potential candidates for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2014;86(7):45-52
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Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma in pregnant women
Mangasarova I.K., Bariakh E.A., Vorob'ev V.I., Khlavno A.B., Magomedova A.U., Shmakov R.G., Kravchenko S.K.
Abstract
AIM. To elaborate a management tactic for pregnant women with primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMLBL) and to assess the toxicity of its treatment to the mother and fetus. MATERIALS AND METHODS. In 2004 to 2014, the Hematology Research Center, Ministry of Health of Russia, treated 94 patients with mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma, 7 (7.4%) of them developed the disease during pregnancy. Induction therapy was performed according to the VACOP-B or R-EPOCH program. For consolidation, polychemotherapy (PCT) was made after 3-4 weeks postpartum in accordance with the R+Dexa-BEAM program, followed by radiotherapy (RT) applied to a residual mediastinal mass in a total focal dose of 36 Gy. To assess the nature of the residual mass, positron emission tomography was carried out 1 month following the induction and consolidation cycles of PCT. RESULTS. PCT was performed in 5 and 2 of the 7 patients diagnosed with PMLBCL in the second and third trimesters according to the VACOP-B and R-EPOCH programs, respectively; for consolidation, PCT was done using the R+Dexa-BEAM regimen in 7 patients: 10 men and 29 women whose ages were 18 to 60 years (median age 30 years); in 5 of the 7 patients, RT was applied to the residual mediastinal region in a total focal dose of 36 Gy. After induction treatment, 4 of 5 the patients in the VACOP-B group achieved partial remission; one of the 5 patients was stated to have disease progression. In the R-EPOCH group, 2 of the 2 patients achieved partial remission. After performing the treatment protocol, an early recurrence was recorded in 1 of the 5 cases in the VACOP-B/Dexa-BEAM/RT group. Effective autologous stem cell transplantation was carried out in patients with disease progression and early recurrence. Seven children (3 boys and 4 girls) were born. Their median body weight was 2182 g (1700 to 3600 g); the median height was 47 cm (40 to 53 cm). Two neonatal infants born to women who had received CT using the R-EPOCH regimen were diagnosed as having intrauterine pneumonia resulting from respiratory distress syndrome, which might be associated with fetal prematurity and the use of rituximab. One baby born to a patient who had been included in the VACOP-B treatment protocol was stated to have superior vena cava at birth. The median follow-up of the patients and born infants was 35 months (15 to 64 months). CONCLUSION. Due to the elaborated algorithm for the treatment and management of pregnant women, all the patients are alive without tumor signs and their babies are healthy without signs of development defects and retardation.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2014;86(7):53-58
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Experience with high-dose chemotherapy in patients with testicular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
Nesterova E.S., Mangasarova I.K., Bariakh E.A., Gubkin A.V., Tolstykh T.N., Lukina A.I., Kovrigina A.M., Domracheva E.V., Chernova N.G., Mar'in D.S., Zvonkov E.E., Gemdzhian É.G., Kravchenko S.K.
Abstract
AIM. To evaluate the efficiency of high-dose therapy according to the DLBL-CNS-2007 protocol in patients with testicular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL). MATERIALS AND METHODS. Out of 408 male patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 8 patients aged 50 to 69 years (median age 55.5 years) with primary testicular (n=3) or with generalized-stage testicular DLBL (n=5) were included in the study. These patients were followed up at the Hematology Research Center, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, in 2007 to 2013. Systemic chemotherapy was performed in accordance with the DLBL-CNS-2007 protocol. RESULTS. The DLBL-CNS-2007 protocol was implemented in first-line therapy in 7 patients. At the first diagnostic stage, one patient was found to have anaplastic seminoma; in this connection right orchifuniculectomy was carried out, followed by radiotherapy applied to the scrotal region in a total focal dose of 34 Gy. This patient with disease recurrence was included in the DLBL-CNS-2007 treatment protocol. The number of polychemotherapy (PCT) cycles (n=4 or 6) was determined by the time to achieve complete remission. After completion of DLBL-CNS-2007 PCT, 6 patients achieved complete remission; the primary resistant disease was noted in 2 cases. At this moment 6 patients are alive in first complete remission during the median follow-up of 50 months (10-54 months). CONCLUSION. The findings suggest that high-dose therapy according to the DLBL-CNS-2007 protocol in patients with testicular DLBL can achieve complete remission and increase overall and event-free survival rates. This fact should be borne out by a large number of observations.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2014;86(7):59-67
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Thrombosis of the sinus durae matris as a complication of therapy in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma
Shitareva I.V., Moiseeva T.N., Al'-Radi L.S., Margolin O.V., Khlavno A.B., Iatsyk G.A., Kravchenko S.K.
Abstract
AIM. To describe thrombosis of the sinus durae matris (TSDM) in lymphomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS. 402 patients with Hodgkin lymphoma were treated using the ВЕАСОРР-14 protocol in 2006 to 2013. Thrombotic events occurred in 6% of the patients, including 3 (0.8%) who developed brain magnetic resonance imaging-verified TSDM. RESULTS. TSDM developed in 3 women aged 17, 18, and 25 years during 3-6 chemotherapy cycles involving glucocorticosteroids in a dose of 80 mg/m2 on days 1-7 and an oral contraceptive used continuously for 1.5-3 months. The symptoms of thrombosis were severe headache; 2 patients had convulsive syndrome with short-term loss of consciousness. Anticoagulant therapy with intravenous heparin 20,000-24,000 U/day led to thrombus recanalization within 4-10 days. No rethromoboses were observed during a subsequent follow-up. CONCLUSION. The ВЕАСОРР-14 treatment in young women with Hodgkin lymphoma who continuously take oral contraceptives should be combined with anticoagulant therapy, by monitoring their coagulogram.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2014;86(7):68-72
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Hypercoagulability in multiple myeloma
Urnova E.S., Pokrovskaia O.S., Gracheva M.A., Vasil'ev S.A., Gemdzhian É.G., Tarandovskiĭ I.D., Mendeleeva L.P.
Abstract
AIM. To determine the frequency and pattern of blood clotting disorders in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and to evaluate the adequacy of preventive anticoagulant or antiaggregant therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The prospective study conducted at the Department for High-Dose Chemotherapy and Bone Marrow Transplantation, Hematology Research Center, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, in March 2012 to May 2013, enrolled 25 patients (13 men and 12 women) aged 29-72 years (median age 54 years) with new-onset MM. The latter was staged using the Durie-Salmon classification: Stages I, II, and III were determined in 2, 10, and 13 patients, respectively. Seven patients were found to have renal dysfunction (which corresponded to Substage B). The hemostasis was evaluated from the results of the following tests: activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), XIIa-dependent fibrinolysis time, Quick prothrombin index, international normalized ratio (INR), and fibrinogen and D-dimer concentrations. The investigators used new hemostatic techniques, such as thrombin generation test, thromboelastography, as well as thrombodynamics, a novel method to determine the characteristics of spatial clot growth. Induction therapy was performed using the PAD and VCD regimens. Thromboses were prevented by using 24-hour infusion of unfractionated heparin (500 U/hr) or by administering aspirin (100 mg/day). RESULTS. Hypercoagulability was identified in 17 (68%) patients. Eleven (44%) patients had elevated D-dimer concentrations. The level of D-dimer was statistically significantly positively correlated with the endogenous thrombin potential and the amount of Β2-microglobulin. The thrombodynamic technique revealed an inverse relationship between the level of paraprotein and the optimal density of a fibrin clot. A thrombotic episode was seen in one elderly (71-year-old) patient after aspirin discontinuation during long-term immobilization. CONCLUSION. Nearly 50% of the primary patients with MM were ascertained to be more prone to thrombosis. Infusion of unfractionated heparin in a dose of 500 U/hr or administration of aspirin (100 mg/day) was the adequate prevention of thrombotic events.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2014;86(7):73-79
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Successful treatment of a patient with two hematologic tumors: double-hit lymphoma and acute myelomonoblastic leukemia
Lukina A.E., Bariakh E.A., Kravchenko S.K., Nareĭko M.V., Kuz'mina L.A., Parovichnikova E.N., Obukhova T.N., Kovrigina A.M., Magomedova A.U.
Abstract
Double-hit (DH) lymphoma, an extremely aggressive variant of B-cell lymphoma, is accompanied by chromosomal abnormalities leading to the activation of a few oncogenes, one of which is the c-MYC gene in conjunction with BCL2 or BCL6 gene rearrangements. There are most common cases of MYC/8q24 and BCL2/18q21 gene rearrangements (MYC/BCL-2 DH lymphoma). The tumor is characterized by an aggressive clinical course and a poor response to chemotherapy (CT). The median survival in patients with DH lymphomas varies from 4.5 to 18 months. Such patients are generally resistant to CHOP-21 and R-CHOP-21 therapy regimens. For the treatment of patients with DH lymphoma, the Hematology Research Center, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, chose an original BL-M-04 polychemotherapy (PCT) protocol in combination with rituximab, followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). The paper describes the experience in successfully treating a patient with two hematologic tumors: 1) MYC/BCL-2 DH lymphoma with high-dose PCT cycles, followed by allo-SCT, and 2) a metachronously developed second tumor (acute myelomonoblastic leukemia (AMML)) with CT cycles, followed by auto-SCT. The incidence of tumors induced by the previous high-dose CT for aggressive lymphomas for 10 years is 0.7 to 10%. As a rule, the development of secondary AMML is preceded by a history of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS); characteristic chromosomal abnormalities (deletions of the long arm of chromosomes 5 and 7) are detectable. In this case, the follow-up was 3 months before the development of AMML, during this period the patient was not found to have laboratory signs of MDS (anemia, thrombocytopenia) or chromosomal abnormalities associated with secondary MDS/AML. The presence of a leukemic stem cell is associated with the occurrence and development of hemoblastosis; that of the similar cell populations that may cause B-cell lymphomas remains uncertain. The described case may have defect in a hematopoietic stem cell that gives rise to both germs of hematopoiesis, as well as complete donor chimerism of bone marrow hematopoiesis, which gives hope to long-term remission in both DH lymphoma and AMML.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2014;86(7):80-84
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Myeloid sarcoma of the small bowel with inversion of chromosome 16: a description of 3 clinical cases
Gavrilina O.A., Bariakh E.A., Parovichnikova E.N., Troitskaia V.V., Zvonkov E.E., Kravchenko S.K., Sinitsyna M.N., Obukhova T.N., Gitis M.K., Savchenko V.G.
Abstract
Myeloid sarcoma (MS) is a rare malignant solid tumor presented with myeloid blast cells showing varying degrees of maturation. MS may have an extramedullary site, precede, or develop simultaneously with the clinical manifestations of acute myeloid leukemia (AML); it may also occur as an AML relapse. Besides AML, MS may be a manifestation of chronic myeloid leukemia or other chronic myeloproliferative diseases. Due to the fact that this disease is rare, the bulk of the literature on MS is presented with single descriptions of retrospective studies and clinical cases. The paper describes 3 cases of MS with inversion of chromosome 16 and small bowel lesion.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2014;86(7):85-92
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Viral mucosal injuries of gastrointestinal tract organs in patients with lymphoma
Chernova N.G., Tikhomirov D.S., Garanzha T.A., Kliasova G.A., Roshchina L.S., Gracheva A.N., Kostina I.É., Al'-Radi L.S., Moiseeva T.N., Kravchenko S.K.
Abstract
Infectious complications are one of the main causes of the lower efficiency of chemotherapy in hematologic oncology. The common infectious pathogens are herpes group viruses. The manifestations of herpesvirus infection or reactivation may be extremely diverse; just the same, digestive tract injury is rarely associated with herpesvirus infection in clinical practice. Viral mucosal injury of the intestine and pharynx is described in 2 patients with lymphomas during agranulocytosis. Virus-specific DNA was absent in blood; however, it was detected at high titers (the number of copies of 103-105 genome-equivalent/ml) in feces and mucosal biopsy specimens. Addition of antiviral therapy could rapidly abolish infectious complications in both cases. Virological examination of material from the injury focus makes it possible to reveal a pathogenic virus even though the latter is undetectable in blood.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2014;86(7):93-96
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Secondary dysmyelopoiesis in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes: A review of literature and the authors' data
Dvirnyk V.N., Kokhno A.V., Parovichnikova E.N.
Abstract
To interpret hematopoietic cell myelodysplastic changes found during the primary diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes or other diseases and during therapy is an enormously complex clinical and laboratory problem. In what cases do these changes serve as a manifestation of clonal disease and in what cases are these changes a result of various effects? Alimentary, toxic factors, infectious agents, and iatrogenic effects may cause myelodysplastic signs in the hematopoietic cells. This review depicts diverse hematopoietic cell dysplastic changes that can be observed as a result of the effects of one drug or another, toxic factors, and infectious agents.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2014;86(7):97-103
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