Vol 88, No 8 (2016)

Articles
Malabsorption is a leading clinical sign of small bowel disease
Parfenov A.I., Krums L.M.
Abstract
The paper presents a variety of clinical manifestations of malabsorption syndrome (MAS) in celiac disease, collagenous sprue, Whipple’s disease, Crohn’s disease, intestinal lymphangiectasia, amyloidosis, common variable immune deficiency, and treatment of short bowel syndrome. It shows the specific features of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of MAS in small bowel diseases.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2016;88(8):4-9
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Possibility of evaluating the effectiveness of renal artery sympathetic denervation in resistant hypertension early after radiofrequency ablation
Rebrova T.Y., Ripp T.M., Afanasiev S.A., Mordovin V.F., Muslimova E.F.
Abstract
Aim. To investigate time course of changes in the adrenoreactivity (AR) of erythrocyte membranes (EM) after radiofrequency ablation of the synaptic nerves of the renal arteries (RA) in patients with resistant hypertension (RH) and to assess whether this indicator can be used for the early evaluation of the efficiency of an invasive intervention into the RA. Subjects and methods. 24 patients with RH, who received full-dose antihypertensive therapy with at least three drugs, including a diuretic, were examined. Renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) was carried out by endovascular radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the RA. 24-hour blood pressure (BP) monitoring and determination of the β-adrenoreactivity (β-AR) of EM were performed, by taking into account the change in erythrocyte osmoresistence at baseline and 1 and 24 weeks after RFA. The therapy was not changed during the observation. Results. The patients included in the study were divided into 2 groups. One week following RSD, 15 patients of Group 1 were noted to have a decrease in the β-AR of EM by 10 conditional units or more; average daily systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) reduced by 8.3 and 2.8 mm Hg, respectively. In 9 patients of Group 2, the β-AR of EM was unchanged in this observation period or increased compared with baseline. In this group, the decrease in average daily SBP and DBP was noted to be less pronounced than that in Group 1 (by 1.4 and 1.5 mm Hg, respectively). At 24 weeks after RSD, Group 1 was seen to have an effective daily decrease in average daily SBP and DBP by 25.6 and 14.3 mm Hg, respectively (p=0.01 and 0.05). The average value of the β-AR of EM significantly declined compared with baseline. In Group 2, no statistically significant changes were reported; SPB and DBP lowered by 7.0 and 3.0 mm Hg, respectively. There was a significant decrease in the β-AR of EM compared with that at week 1. Conclusion. The decline in the β-AR of EM within the first week after RFA is suggestive of the decreased activity of the sympathoadrenal system and may be used as an early efficiency index of RSD after the procedure.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2016;88(8):10-13
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Criteria for selecting patients with resistant hypertension for a renal sympathetic denervation
Ripp T.M., Rebrova T.Y., Mordovin V.F., Afanasiev S.A., Pekarsky S.E., Semke G.V., Falkovskaya A.Y., Lichikaki V.A., Tsymbalyuk E.V.
Abstract
Aim. To define and develop a procedure that can select patients with resistant hypertension (RH) for a renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) procedure, by being orienting to the specific initial values of β-adrenoreactivity (β-AR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP). Subjects and methods. The analysis included 23 RH patients receiving the maximally tolerable doses of 4 antihypertensive drugs. The investigations involving BP control and a Russian spectrophotometric procedure for determining β-AR in terms of the change in the osmoresistance of erythrocyte membranes (EM) were performed at baseline and 4 and 24 weeks. RSD was carried out using endovascular radiofrequency ablation of the renal arteries. The therapy was not changed during the observation. Results. If SBP was >170 mm Hg and β-AR of EM >40 conditional units (CUs) at baseline, ΔSBP was 17.68±3.24 mm Hg and the efficiency of RSD was 100%. When SBP was <170 mm Hg and β-AR of EM <40 CUs at baseline, ΔSBP was 0.97±4.21 mm Hg (p>0.05) and the efficiency of RSD was low. Conclusion. The overall estimate of baseline SBP and β-AR of EM in patients with RH could determine the expediency of the RSD procedure in order to lower BP. The proposed procedure can optimize the selection of patients and enhance the efficiency of RSD in the treatment of RH.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2016;88(8):14-18
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Non-drug rehabilitation of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease concurrent with hypertension
Sevostyanova E.V., Nikolaev Y.A., Bogdankevich N.V., Lusheva V.G., Markova E.N., Dolgova N.A.
Abstract
Aim. To evaluate the efficiency of decimeter wave therapy and halotherapy, which were additionally added to basic therapy, in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) concurrent with hypertension at the inpatient stage. Subject and methods. 36 patients aged 20 to 75 years with Stages I—II COPD concurrent with Stages I—II, first-second grade hypertension were examined and treated. The clinical examination included collection of complaints and medical history data, clinical laboratory and instrumental (electrocardiography, spirography) studies, and health-related quality of life (using the SF-36 questionnaire). The patients were randomized into two groups: a study group and a comparison group. The study group patients received decimeter wave therapy and halotherapy in addition to basic drug treatment; the comparison patients had basic drug therapy. Results. Pre- and postoperative comparative analysis of the major clinical manifestations of comorbidities revealed more pronounced positive changes with the lower rate of clinical manifestations in the study group. It was also observed to have a more marked reduction in blood pressure (BP) with its goal levels achieved. The mean pulse BP decreased by 28% in the study group (p=0.000005) and did not statistically reduced in the comparison group. In the study group patients, the integral quality-of-life indicator after a package of medical rehabilitation measures became statistically significantly higher by 35%. This indicator in the comparison group was statistically significantly unchanged. Conclusion. The directionality of the proposed rehabilitation complex towards the common pathogenetic components of the development and progression of COPD and hypertension, as well as the high efficiency of the complex justify its appropriate inclusion in the combination treatment and rehabilitation of this category of patients.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2016;88(8):19-24
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Pulmonary rehabilitation as an effective method for optimizing therapeutic and preventive measures in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease concurrent with metabolic syndrome
Budnevsky A.V., Isaeva Y.V., Malysh E.Y., Kozhevnikova S.A.
Abstract
Aim. To evaluate the impact of a pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) cycle based on patient education, smoking cessation, physical exercises, and balanced nutrition in addition to standard therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD in patients with this condition. Subjects and methods. 70 patients (27 (38.6%) women and 43 (61.4%) men) aged 18 to 60 years (mean age, 48.31±0.64 years) with moderate COPD in remission concurrent with MS were examined. The comprehensive examination of the patients encompassed assessment of clinical, instrumental, and laboratory findings at baseline and 12 months. The patients were randomized into two groups: 1) 35 patients who underwent a RH cycle in addition to standard therapy for COPD; 2) 35 patients who received standard COPD treatment only. Results. Group 1 was found to have significant differences in reducing the number of patients with COPD exacerbations, emergency calls, hospitalizations, severity of clinical symptoms of COPD and their impact on the physical activity and health of the patients, as well as better quality of life and exercise tolerance. Conclusions. The therapeutic and preventive measures for patients with COPD and MS should involve educational programs and physical trainings, which are developed, by taking into account of a comorbidity in order to optimize therapeutic and preventive measures and to improve quality of life in this category of patients.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2016;88(8):25-29
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Blood fatty acids in the development and correction of metabolic syndrome
Novgorodtseva T.P., Denisenko Y.K., Antonyuk M.V., Yubitskaya N.S., Lobanova E.G., Zhukova N.V.
Abstract
Aim. To investigate the composition of plasma fatty acids (FA) and red blood cells and the level of eicosanoids in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) and to assess whether metabolic disturbances may be corrected during a cycle use of an ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). Subjects and methods. Examinations were made in 46 patients, including Group 1 (a control group) of 15 persons without MS components; Group 2 of 31 patients with MS, Group 3 of 16 MS patients who had taken an ω-3 PUFA for 6 months, and Group 4 of 15 MS patients who had received the drug for 12 months. The composition of plasma FA and red blood cells was analyzed on a gas-liquid chromatograph. An enzyme immunoassay was used to measure the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and eicosanoids (thromboxane B2, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α, leukotriene B4). A biologically active additive from the king crab (Paralithodes camtschatica) hepatopancreas was used as a source of ω-3 PUFA. Results. Having a higher proportion of linoleic and α-linolenic acids in the plasma, the patients were found to have decreased levels of ω-3 and ω-6 PUFAs (linoleic and α-linolenic, arachidonic, and eicosapentaenoic acids) and a larger proportion of Mead acid and saturated FAs (myristic and stearic acids) in the red blood cells, suggesting that that cellular blood FA transfer was impaired and FAs were absorbed by cells. Their serum samples showed the high levels of leukotriene B4, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α, and thromboxane A2. The long-term (6- and 12-month) use of ω-3 PUFA from the king crab hepatopancreas had a positive impact in modifying the lipid FA composition of red blood cells and in eliminating deficiencies of physiologically important ω-3 and ω-6 PUFAs in the blood cells. Conclusion. The findings suggest that FAs and their metabolites play an important role in the pathogenesis of MS and that dietary ω-3 PUFA should be incorporated into a package of preventive and therapeutic measures for MS.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2016;88(8):30-34
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Primary percutaneous interventions into the coronary arteries in patients with diabetes mellitus
Bessonov I.S., Kuznetsov V.A., Zyryanov I.P., Sapozhnikov S.S., Musikhina N.A., Rozhkov A.G.
Abstract
Aim. To investigate the specific features and results of percutaneous interventions (PCI) into the coronary arteries in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI) and diabetes mellitus (DM) in clinical practice. Subjects and methods. A study group consisted of 120 patients with a history of type 2 DM, who had undergone primary PCI in 2008 to 2013. A comparison group included 601 patients without a history of DM. Results. Assessment of the results of hospital interventions revealed no differences between the study and comparison groups in mortality rates (4.1 and 3.2%, respectively; p=0.376), stent thromboses (0.8 and 1.2%, respectively; p=0.601), and recurrent MI (0 and 1.5%, respectively; p=0.189). No differences were determined in the combined index including death, recurrent MI, and stent thrombosis (5 and 5%; p=0.985). At the same time, the no-reflow phenomenon developed statistically significantly more frequently in the patients with DM (7.4 and 2.8%; p=0.019). Binary logistic regression established independent associations between the presence of DM and patient age (odds ratio (OR) 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02 to 1.07; p<0.001), female sex (OR 0.36; 95% CI 0.23 to 0.56; p<0.001), and higher body mass index (OR 1.1; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.16; p<0.04). Conclusion. Primary PCIs in patients with DM are an effective and safe method for revascularization in acute ST-segment elevation MI and these are not followed by increases in mortality and frequency of major poor cardiac complications at the hospital stage despite the more common development of the no-reflow phenomenon.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2016;88(8):35-39
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Efficacy of Kolofort for the treatment of patients with irritable bowel syndrome
Tsukanov V.V., Rzhavicheva O.S., Vasjutin A.V., Dunaevskaja O.V., Tonkih J.L., Bronnikova E.P.
Abstract
Aim. To determine the efficacy and safety of Kolofort in the treatment of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Subjects and methods. 52 patients (16 men and 36 women) aged 26 to 59 years were examined over 4 months to rule out organic disease. The diagnosis of IBS was established on the basis of the Rome III diagnostic criteria (2006). Seven patients were diagnosed as having IBS with a preponderance of constipation; 3 had IBS with a preponderance of diarrhea, and 42 had mixed IBS. Thereafter they were given Kolofort, a combination release-active antibody drug having anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory, and spasmolytic effects. Kolofort affects the ligand-receptor interactions of the brain-specific protein S-100 with serotonin receptors and σ1-receptors in the central nervous system and that of histamine with histamine H4 receptors in the gastrointestinal tract and modifies (regulates) the functional activity of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The regulatory action of the drug at the level of the central and autonomic nervous system and the immune system manifests itself as spasmolytic, anti-inflammatory, and sedative effects, which as a whole effectively normalizes gastrointestinal motility. For 3 months, the patients took sublingual Kolofort in a dose of 2 tablets thrice daily for 2 weeks, then 2 tablets twice daily for 2.5 months. Control was made 2 weeks, 1, 2, and 3 months after treatment initiation. The investigators assessed abdominal pain syndrome, defecation disorders, abdominal distension, and flatulence by the visual analogue scale (VAS-IBS questionnaire), visceral sensitivity index (VSI questionnaire), quality of life (QL) in patients with IBS (IBS-QoL questionnaire), and stool form according to the Bristol Stool Chart and measured the levels of TNF-α and interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10 before and after treatment. Results. The efficacy of Kolofort showed itself within 2 weeks of its administration against all the study functional parameters (pain, defecation disorder, and flatulence). After one month of therapy, the efficacy of Kolofort achieved meaningful statistical significance against abdominal pain, complaints of flatulence, visceral sensitivity index, and QL. The statistically significant restoration of a stool form was achieved 2 months after treatment and 3-month Kolofort treatment showed a clear-cut positive clinical effect that appeared as reductions in pain syndrome (214±0.22; р < 0.001) and visceral hypersensitivity symptoms (from 30.33±2.9 to 67.76±6.5; р < 0.001), improvements in subjective sensations associated with defecation disorders (from 6.95±0.71 to 2.74±0.28; р < 0.001), stool form, and QL indicators (from 103.48±9.06 to 44.95±5.4; р < 0.001), and a decrease in blood TNF-α levels after treatment termination (from 9.16 to 7.02 pg/ml; р < 0.026). A Kolofort treatment cycle for IBS produced no clinically relevant side effects. Conclusion. Kolofort was highly effective in relieving symptoms, in normalizing the psychological status, and in lowering the levels of TNF-α in the treatment of IBS. The efficacy of the drug was achieved because of its combined effect on the main components of the pathogenesis of IBS.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2016;88(8):40-45
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Long-term infliximab therapy for ulcerative colitis in real clinical practice
Knyazev O.V., Parfenov A.I., Kagramanova A.V., Ruchkina I.N., Shcherbakov P.L., Shakhpazyan N.K., Noskova K.K., Ivkina T.I., Khomeriki S.G.
Abstract
Aim. To retrospectively evaluate the efficiency of long-term infliximab (INF) therapy in patients with refractory ulcerative colitis (UC). Subjects and methods. The investigation enrolled 48 patients with refractory UC who had taken IFL in 2008 to 2014. Steroid-dependent or steroid-refractory UC was established in 40 (83.3%) patients; 8 (16.7%) were noted to be refractory to therapy with azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine. Cytomegalovirus DNA was identified in the biopsy specimens of the large intestinal mucosa (LIM) from 7 patients. One patient received antiviral therapy. Induction therapy with IFL was in its administration in a dose of 5 mg/kg at 0, 2, and 6 weeks, then maintenance therapy was continued every 8 weeks. Results. After an IFL induction cycle, 3 (6.3%) patients were unresponsive to therapy and were excluded from the investigation. At present, 25 (55.5%) of the 45 patients who have responded to the therapy continue to take IFL 5 mg/kg every 8 weeks and are in clinical remission; 4 (8.8%) patients receive intensified IFL therapy. Initially 23 patients received combined therapy with IFL + an immunosuppressive drug; 22 had IFL monotherapy. Escape from the effect of the performed therapy was observed in 5 (11.1%) patients, which required its intensification. The intensified therapy resulted in sustained remission in 4 (8.8%) patients; colectomy was carried out in one (2.2%) case. Secondary loss of response to IFL, its intolerance, development of severe infectious complications, which did not allow for further maintenance therapy with IFL, were seen in 11 (24.4%) patients; 5 (11.1%) stopped the therapy because they had been excluded from the additional drug subsidy list. Maintenance therapy with IFL proved successful during 64 months in 29 (64.4%) of the 45 patients and during 64 months if its intensity, when the occasion required, was enhanced. Conclusion. The long-term use of IFL in UC confirmed its high efficacy in achieving clinical response, in inducing a clinical remission and its capacity to heal LIM, and in sustaining remission.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2016;88(8):46-52
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Multiple primary colorectal cancer: Clinical aspects
Soldatkina N.V., Kit O.I., Gevorkyan Y.A., Milakin A.G.
Abstract
Aim. To define some clinical characteristics of synchronous and metachronous colorectal cancer (CRC). Materials and methods. The investigation was concerned with the data of 150 patients with T1—4N0—2M0—1 multiple primary CRC. The clinical, biological, and morphological characteristics of synchronous and metachronous tumors were analyzed. Results. Multiple primary tumors were 6.01% of all the cases of CRC. There was a preponderance of synchronous CRC (63.75%) with the tumor localized in the sigmoid colon and rectum. In women, synchronous colorectal tumors were more often concurrent with breast tumors; metachronous ones were detected after treatment for genital tumors. In men, synchronous colorectal tumors were more frequently concurrent with kidney cancer; metachronous ones were identified after treatment for gastric cancer. Conclusion. The found characteristics of multiple primary colorectal tumors may be taken in account in programs for both primary diagnosis and follow-up after treatment for malignant tumors, which will be able to improve the early detection of cancer patients and their treatment results.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2016;88(8):53-58
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Prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in outpatients in Rostov-on-Don: Regional results of the DIREG-2 study
Tkachev A.V., Tarasova G.N., Groshilin V.S., Vasilchenkov D.A., Ushakova T.I., Blinov D.V.
Abstract
Aim. To analyze and summarize the data of the DIREG-2 study of the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) register in Rostov-on-Don versus those in Russia. Materials and methods. The prospective disease registry study encompasses an epidemiologic, observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study estimating the prevalence of NAFLD in outpatients in Rostov-on-Don. A total of 3200 patients participated in this study. The investigators were 65 outpatient physicians. Epidemiological data were obtained during two patient visits to the research centers. Results. The key result obtained from this study was the significantly higher prevalence of NAFLD in Rostov-on-Don than that in the general population (40.4 and 37.3%). In addition to the higher prevalence of NAFLD, there was also a higher spread of risk factors (RFs), such as abdominal obesity, female age of 45—55 years, and hyperlipidemia. Conclusion. The prevalence of NAFLD in the outpatients of Rostov-on-Don was 3.1% greater than that in Russia; this might be due to the significantly higher spread of some RFs (abdominal obesity, female age of 45—55 years, hyperlipidemia). The findings are undoubtedly necessary for the elaboration of measures for the primary and secondary prevention of NAFLD in Rostov-on-Don.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2016;88(8):59-66
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Renal transplantation in recipients with moderate presensitization
Vatazin A.V., Zulkarnaev A.B.
Abstract
Aim. To comparatively assess desensitization schemes with and without plasmapheresis in patients with low presensitization. Subjects and methods. The investigators studied the efficiency of the two desensitization schemes (cascade plasma filtration + intravenous immunoglobulin used in a dose of 100 mg/kg in 19 patients (a study group; panel reactive antibodies (PRA) 25.1±6.1%) versus 2 g/kg in 23 patients (a comparison group, PRA 18.9±4.4%). The crossmatch reaction was negative in both groups. The median follow-up period was 23.5 (quartiles 1 and 3: 10.25 and 26) months. Results. The study group was noted to have 6 episodes of acute rejection and 1 episode of infection; the comparison group had 13 and 3 episodes, respectively. The overall renal graft survival was 79 and 65% in the study and comparison groups, respectively; the 1-year graft survival was 94 and 62%. Graft function was significantly better in the study group: there was a lower daily proteinuria level (p<0.001) at 3 months after transplantation; a higher glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (p=0.001) and a lower daily proteinuria level (p=0.01) at 6 months; a lower serum creatinine comcentration (p=0.001) and lower daily proteinuria (p=0.001) and a higher GFR (p=0.001) at one year. Conclusion. Even with the relatively low level of sensitization, there is an increase in the frequency of acute rejection episodes and worse graft function. The efficiency of desensitization using cascade plasma filtration and low-dose intravenous immunoglobulin is higher than that with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2016;88(8):67-72
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Evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy and safety of the selective anxiolytic afobazole in generalized anxiety disorder and adjustment disorders: Results of a multicenter randomized comparative study of diazepam
Syunyakov T.S., Neznamov G.G.
Abstract
Aim. To summarize the previously published results of a multicenter randomized clinical research phase III study trial of afobazole (INN: fabomotizole) versus diazepam in the treatment of patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and adjustment disorders (AD). Subjects and methods. Five investigating centers included 150 patients aged 18 to 60 years (60 patients with GAD and 90 with AD) a simple structure of anxiety disorders without concurrent mental, neurological or somatic disorders. Patients were randomized to take afobazole (30 mg/day; n=100) or diazepam (30 mg/day; n=50) for 30 days. Prior to drug administration, patients susceptible to placebo were excluded according to the results of its 7-day use. Withdrawal syndrome was evaluated within 10 days after completion of active therapy. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change of Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) total score. The scores of the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) Scale and the Sheehan Scale as secondary efficacy endpoints  were analyzed. Drug safety was evaluated by assessment of adverse events. Results. Afobazole and diazepam caused a significant reduction of HAMA total score. In the afobazole group, the reduction of anxiety  exceeded that in the diazepam group (the difference in the total score changes was 2.93 [0.67; 5.19]; p=0,01).The proportion of patients with reduction of disease severity was 72% in the afobazole group and 58% in the diazepam group. After therapy completion, the proportion of patients with no or mild disorder in the afobazole group was significantly higher than that in the diazepam group (69 and 44%, respectively; χ2=12.46; p=0,014). There was a trend toward a higher subjective patient-rated estimate of the afobazole effect using the Sheehan scale. There were a total of 15 and 199 adverse events in the afobazole and diazepam groups, respectively. No manifestations of afobazole withdrawal syndrome were found. Diazepam withdrawal syndrome was observed in 34 (68%) patients. Conclusion. Afobazole is an effective and safe drug to treat patients with GAD and AD and non-inferior than diazepam in the treatment of these disorders, however it is superior in terms of several variables, including the safety profile.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2016;88(8):73-86
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Pneumonia: Regional experience with prevention programs
Chuchalin A.G., Onishchenko G.G., Kolosov V.P., Kurganova O.P., Tezikov N.L., Manakov L.G., Gulevich M.P., Perelman Y.M.
Abstract
Aim. To generalize the regional experience in implementing a package of organizational and methodical and antiepidemic measures for preventing pneumococcal infections. Materials and methods. How the prevention programs were implemented using the materials and methods of the epidemiological and statistical monitoring of the incidence of pneumonia in the Amur Region was analyzed. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevenar-13) and influenza vaccines were used for immunoprophylaxis against acute respiratory viral and pneumococcal infections. Information on the incidence of acute respiratory viral infections and pneumonia over time in the period 2010 to 2015 must be taken into account. Indicators and special criteria are used to evaluate the efficiency of vaccination. Results. The comparative statistical analysis revealed the high efficiency of regional programs using the methods for immunoprophylaxis against pneumococcal infections: the vaccination prophylactic efficiency index in terms of the incidence of pneumonia might be as high as 75—100%. Pneumonia morbidity rates became 2.3 times lower in the vaccinated population of the region. Conclusion. The results of the investigation suggest that the Program for the clinical and epidemiological monitoring and prevention of community-acquired pneumonias, by using the vaccine against pneumococcal infection in the Amur Region, has a high medical and socioeconomic efficiency.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2016;88(8):87-92
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Role of polymorphic markers for the genes of hemostasis and platelet receptors in liver fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C
Starostina E.E., Samokhodskaya L.M., Rozina T.P., Krasnova T.N., Yarovaya E.B., Mukhin N.A.
Abstract
Aim. To estimate the clinical and prognostic value of the carriage of different allele variants of the gene polymorphisms of the coagulation system and platelet receptors in the progression of liver fibrosis (LF) in patient with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Subjects and methods. The investigation enrolled 177 patients with CHC and liver cirrhosis at its outcome who were divided into 2 groups according to the rate of LF progression: 1) 89 patients with rapid (rapid fibrosis) and 2) 88 patients with slow (slow fibrosis) progression. The polymorphism of the study genes was studied using a real-time polymerase chain reaction and a melting curve analysis. Results. In CHC patients, the FV 1691G/A genotype was more often in the rapid progressors than that in the slow progressors (10.11% vs 1.14%; p=0.011). The A allele of the 1691 G/A FV gene was more common in the rapid fibrosis group than that in the slow fibrosis group (1.7% vs 5.56%, odd ratio 9.787; p=0.139). In our investigation, the polymorphic marker GA in the FII 20210 G/A gene, as well as the 4G allele (5G4G + 4G4G genotypes) and the 4G allele of PAI-I -675 5G/4G were more often seen in the rapid fibrosis group than that in the slow fibrosis group; the detection rate was only at the trend level (p=0.118, p=0.112, and p=0.117 respectively). There were no significant differences between the groups in the spread of variant genotypes and alleles of other study genes. Integral model construction by coding «profibrogenic» genotypes (FV 1691 G/A, FII 20210 G/A, PAI-I -675 5G/4G) showed that the fibrosis progression rate expressed as fibrosis units annually also increased with higher total scores (p=0.039), indicating the combined effect of these genes. Conclusion. The carriage of mutant genotypes of FV 1691 G/A, FII 20210 G/A, and PAI-I -675 5G/4G genes is a prognostic factor for rapid CHC progression.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2016;88(8):93-98
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Cardiac damage in liver cirrhosis in alcohol abusers
Romanova V.A., Goncharov A.S., Terebilina N.N., Moiseev V.S.
Abstract
Aim. To estimate the contribution of liver cirrhosis (LC) to the development of heart diseases in alcohol abusers. Subjects and methods. The investigation included 80 patients with alcoholic LC without a history of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and, as a control group, 32 alcohol abusers without a history of chronic diseases of the liver and cardiovascular and respiratory systems; 45 patients with alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) and congestive heart failure without a history of coronary heart disease and valvular diseases, among whom 11 patients were found to have LC. In addition to standard clinical examination, all the patients underwent electrocardiography, by estimating the corrected QT interval (QTc), standard echocardiography; and those without ACM underwent estimation of left ventricular (LV) kinetics using speckle-tracking echocardiography. Results. The patients with alcoholic LC were found to have a higher LV ejection fraction and a more obvious impairment of LV global longitudinal deformity, and more commonly LV diastolic dysfunction. 16 of the 80 patients with LC were observed to have moderate pulmonary hypertension while the mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) was within the normal range in all the patients without LC. A prolonged QTc interval was revealed in the patients with LC. The duration of QTc was directly correlated with the MELD severity of LC. The patients with chronic heart failure in the presence of ACM and CL showed a more obvious LV diastolic dysfunction, as estimated by E/E’, a greater LV mass index, and a higher MPAP than those with ACM without LC. Conclusion. The LC patients both with ACM and without a history of diseases of the heart were noted to have its more evident disorders as diastolic dysfunction and elevated MPAP. Those without ACM were observed to have impaired LV global deformity and a prolonged QTc interval.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2016;88(8):99-104
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A clinical case of hemangioma of the face and tongue concurrent with severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome complicated by cardiac arrhythmias and conduction disturbances
Konovalova K.I., Elfimova E.M., Butorova E.A., Aksenova A.V., Galitsin P.V., Bulkina O.S., Litvin A.Y., Chazova I.E.
Abstract
The paper describes a clinical case of a female patient with severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in the presence of congenital hemangioma of the face, soft palate, and tongue concurrent with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, and sinoatrial block (maximally up to 3.9 sec). Continuous positive airway pressure therapy could reduce the number of paroxysms of atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter, supraventricular tachycardia and eliminate sinoatrial block.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2016;88(8):105-110
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Fabry’s disease: Neurological disorders
Damulin I.V.
Abstract
The paper considers the pathogenesis and clinical features of Fabry’s disease. It is stressed that along with cardiovascular system damage and kidney injury, there are peripheral and central nervous system lesions in this disease. In Fabry’s disease, great attention is paid to cerebrovascular diseases that frequently give rise to disability. Peripheral neuropathy is mainly due to involvement of minor fibers and autonomic disorders. Signs that allow this disease to be diagnosed are given.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2016;88(8):111-114
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Role of microRNA in oncogenesis of pituitary tumors and their practical significance
Lapshina A.M., Khandaeva P.M., Belaya Z.E., Rozhinskaya L.Y., Melnichenko G.A.
Abstract
Microribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs that regulate posttranscriptional gene expression. These molecules are regulators of cell proliferation, metabolism, apoptosis, and differentiation. MiRNAs are not degraded by RNAases and their concentrations can be measured in different body fluids, including serum. The expression of miRNAs varies in intact tissues and tumors, including pituitary adenomas. Pituitary tumors are encountered in 22.5% of the population and, in a number of cases, may be asymptomatic, but in case of invasion or/and hormone overproduction, their clinical presentation is severe with multiple symptoms leading to disability and even death. The mechanisms for the development and progression of pituitary tumors and the markers for remission and recurrence have not been adequately investigated. This literature review discusses the biological significance of miRNAs in pituitary tumors and the potential value of circulating miRNAs as biomarkers.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2016;88(8):115-120
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Neuroprotective and nephroprotective effects of remote postconditioning: Prospects for clinical use
Maslov L.N., Tsibulnikov S.Y., Tsepokina A.V., Khutornaya M.V., Kutikhin A.G., Tsibulnikova M.R., Basalay M.V., Mrochek A.G.
Abstract
The results of experimental and clinical studies strongly suggest that remote ischemic preconditioning (RIP) has no neuroprotective effect during cardiac surgery performed under extracorporeal circulation. Remote preconditioning (RP) has no neuroprotective effect in hemorrhagic stroke. A randomized multicenter study is needed to evaluate the efficiency RIP in patients with ischemic stroke. RP reduces the severity of ischemia/reperfusion kidney injury during transplantation. RIP has been established to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy. There is a need for a multicenter trial to evaluate the efficiency of RIP in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Analysis of the presented data indicates that RIP fails to prevent cardiorenal syndrome in infants and children during cardiac surgery. The data available in the literature on the capacity of RIP to provide nephroprotective effect in patients after coronary artery bypass surgery are discordant and indicative of the advisability of a multicenter study.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2016;88(8):121-126
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Pulmonary manifestations in adult patients with a defect in humoral immunity
Latysheva T.V., Latysheva E.A., Martynova I.A., Aminova G.E.
Abstract
Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are a group of congenital diseases of the immune system, which numbers more than 230 nosological entities associated with lost, decreased, or wrong function of its one or several components. Due to the common misconception that these are extremely rare diseases that occur only in children and lead to their death at an early age, PIDs are frequently ruled out by physicians of related specialties from the range of differential diagnosis. The most common forms of PIDs, such as humoral immunity defects, common variable immune deficiency, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, selective IgA deficiency, etc., are milder than other forms of PID, enabling patients to attain their adult age, and may even manifest in adulthood. Bronchopulmonary involvements are the most common manifestations of the disease in patients with a defect in humoral immunity. Thus, a therapist and a pulmonologist are mostly the first doctors who begin to treat these patients and play a key role in their fate, since only timely diagnosis and initiation of adequate therapy can preserve not only the patient’s life, but also its quality, avoiding irreversible complications. Chest computed tomography changes play a large role in diagnosis. These are not specific for PID; however, there are a number of characteristic signs that permit this diagnosis to be presumed.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2016;88(8):127-134
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Expert Panel Resolution on Personified Choice of an Inhaler in Patients with Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseas
Emelyanov A.V., Avdeev S.N., Aisanov Z.R., Vizel A.A., Ilina N.I., Knyazheskaya N.P., Leshchenko I.V., Nenasheva N.M., Styrt E.A., Titova O.N.
Terapevticheskii arkhiv. 2016;88(8):135-137
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