Blood fatty acids in the development and correction of metabolic syndrome


Aim. To investigate the composition of plasma fatty acids (FA) and red blood cells and the level of eicosanoids in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) and to assess whether metabolic disturbances may be corrected during a cycle use of an ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). Subjects and methods. Examinations were made in 46 patients, including Group 1 (a control group) of 15 persons without MS components; Group 2 of 31 patients with MS, Group 3 of 16 MS patients who had taken an ω-3 PUFA for 6 months, and Group 4 of 15 MS patients who had received the drug for 12 months. The composition of plasma FA and red blood cells was analyzed on a gas-liquid chromatograph. An enzyme immunoassay was used to measure the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and eicosanoids (thromboxane B2, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α, leukotriene B4). A biologically active additive from the king crab (Paralithodes camtschatica) hepatopancreas was used as a source of ω-3 PUFA. Results. Having a higher proportion of linoleic and α-linolenic acids in the plasma, the patients were found to have decreased levels of ω-3 and ω-6 PUFAs (linoleic and α-linolenic, arachidonic, and eicosapentaenoic acids) and a larger proportion of Mead acid and saturated FAs (myristic and stearic acids) in the red blood cells, suggesting that that cellular blood FA transfer was impaired and FAs were absorbed by cells. Their serum samples showed the high levels of leukotriene B4, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α, and thromboxane A2. The long-term (6- and 12-month) use of ω-3 PUFA from the king crab hepatopancreas had a positive impact in modifying the lipid FA composition of red blood cells and in eliminating deficiencies of physiologically important ω-3 and ω-6 PUFAs in the blood cells. Conclusion. The findings suggest that FAs and their metabolites play an important role in the pathogenesis of MS and that dietary ω-3 PUFA should be incorporated into a package of preventive and therapeutic measures for MS.


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