Use of probiotics and probiotic-based immunomodulators as adjuvant therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication

Abstract

At present, Helicobacter pylori (Нр) infection is the most common chronic bacterial infection in humans, the pathogen of which colonizes approximately 50% of the world’s population. Hp eradication is required to control complications of Hp-related diseases (gastric and duodenal ulcers). Nevertheless, a number of investigations have demonstrated widespread antibacterial therapy inefficiency due to Hp antibiotic resistance and patient non-compliance with treatment regimens. Due to the growing need to elaborate alternative eradication regimens, some researchers have drawn their attention to probiotics and immunomodulators derived from Lactobacillus in particular for eradication therapy in Нp-positive patients to enhance the effect of antibacterial drugs. The review analyzes the results of 10 meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials with a similar design, which were published in 2007 to 2015, and other clinical trials assessing the role of probiotics and probiotic-based immunomodulators as an adjuvant therapy for Hp eradication. The results of the analysis have established that Lactobacillus strain-containing probiotics, both monocomponent probiotics and those as part of multicomponent ones, when used as an adjunct to anti-Hp therapy, significantly increase the level of Нp eradication by 8.1—20.0% (p<0.05; Level of Evidence, 1A; Recommendation Grade A). The use of N-acetylglucosaminyl-N-acetylmuramyl dipeptide (Licopid, a Lactobacillus bulgaricus-based immunomodulator) 0.001 and 0.01 g/day as an adjuvant to first-line triple anti-Hp therapy was shown to increase the level of Hp eradication by 7.1—8.9%. The intake of licopid 0.001 and 0.01 g/day during 7-day triple anti-Hp therapy results in the absence of recurrent Hp infection, as compared with 7- and 14-day treatment protocols without licopid, and leads to a significantly low incidence of Hp reinfection within 2—5 years after successful bacterial eradication, as compared with the 7-day protocol without adjuvant therapy with glucosaminylmuramyl dipeptide (p<0.05).

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