Current principles in the screening, diagnosis, and therapy of colorectal cancer


The data available in the literature on the prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC), its risk factors and genetic aspects are analyzed. Basic screening tests and their diagnostic value are described. The paper indicates the importance of methods (colonoscopy, occult blood feces analysis, fecal immunochemical test, determination of molecular genetic profile of fecal enterocytes) for the early primary diagnosis of colonic epithelial tumors and techniques (echography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography) that are required to specify clinical TNM staging and enable one to choose an optimal treatment policy for CRC patients owing to the estimation of tumor volume and to the diagnosis of reginal and distant metastases. It also shows that new screening methods based on the detection of molecular markers for early (premorphological) tumor stages are promising. The role of primary CRC prevention aimed at molding and maintaining a healthy lifestyle in the population is demonstrated.


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