Impact of the local application of collagen on the activity of reparative processes in the lower extremity soft tissue of patients with diabetic foot syndrome


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Aim. To estimate of the rate of reparative processes in the lower extremity (LE) soft tissues of patients with diabetic foot (DF) syndrome in the local application of collagen-containing dressings (CCD) versus standard medical therapy. Subjects and methods. The clinical (sizes, tissue oxygenation), histological, and immunohistochemical markers of reparative processes in LE soft tissues were analyzed in patients with diabetes mellitus during the local application of collagen-containing wound dressings versus standard treatment. Forty-two patients with postrevascularization neuropathic and neuroischemic DF syndrome were examined after standard surgical wound treatment. In the perioperative period, 21 patients received local treatment using CCD and 21 patients had standard treatment. Results. In the patients using CCD, the area and depth of wound defects could be decreased by 26.4±17.2 and 30.4±25.6%, respectively (p=0.002 vs baseline). In the control group, those were 17.0±19.4 and 16.6±21.6%, respectively (p=0.002). Percutaneous oximetry assessment indicated significantly higher local microhemodynamics in the local collagen treatment group (p<0.05). According to the data of histological examination of wound defect tissues, after 10-day treatment, Group 1 showed a 80% reduction in edema (p<0.05), a 90% disappearance of inflammatory infiltrates (p<0.05), and formation of mature granulation tissue (p<0.05). Immunohistochemical examination revealed a more pronounced rise in the count of macrophages in the derma (p<0.05). When CCD was applied, the level of matrix metalloproteinase tended to more markedly decrease as compared to that in the control group. Conclusion. The findings suggest that the activity of reparative processes in LE soft tissues is enhanced in diabetic patients receiving local collagen therapy versus those having standard treatment. This manifests itself as a decrease in both the area and depth of wounds, enhancement of local tissue perfusion, a reduction of inflammation and a rapider wound transfer from proliferation to the epithelialization phase, as supported by histological and immunohistochemical findings.

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