Delirium in the clinical practice of a therapist

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Abstract

Delirium is a neuropsychiatric condition that may complicate any visceral disease. Its rate is especially high among patients with inflammatory diseases or metabolic disturbances and in the elderly. Brain injury concurrent with an abnormal stress response underlies the development of delirium. The clinical picture of delirium is characterized by clouding of consciousness accompanied by global cognitive and behavioral changes. According to the nature of changes in motor behavior, delirium is divided into hyperactive, hypoactive, and mixed subtypes. Special scales, such as Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU), are used to identify delirium. Management of delirium includes specific therapy for the underlying disease and adequate care. Low-dose neuroleptics, haloperidol in particular, are recommended to correct behavioral changes.

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Делирий в клинической практике терапевта. - Аннотация. Делирий - нервно-психическое расстройство, которое может осложнять течение любого заболевания внутренних органов. Его частота особенно высока среди пациентов с воспалительными заболеваниями, метаболическими нарушениями, а также среди пожилых людей. В основе развития делирия лежит сочетание поражения головного мозга и патологической стресс-реакции. Клиническая картина делирия характеризуется помрачнением сознания, которое сопровождается глобальными когнитивными и поведенческими нарушениями. По характеру изменений двигательного поведения делирии делится на гиперактивный, гипоактивный и смешанный. Для выявления делирия используют специальные шкалы, например МОСС-ОРИТ. Лечение делирия состоит из специфической терапии основного заболевания и адекватного ухода. Для коррекции поведенческих нарушений рекомендуется использовать малые дозы нейролептиков, в частности галоперидола.
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