The role of balanced low-protein diet in inhibition of progression of predialysis chronic disease of the kidneys in systemic diseases

Abstract

Aim. To evaluate the effects of low-protein diet (LPD) balanced by addition of highly energetic mix and essential keto/amino acids on inhibition of renal failure in patients with systemic diseases with predialysis stages of chronic disease of the kidney (CDK).
Material and methods. Forty six patients with stage III-IV of CDK in systemic diseases (33 SLE patients and 13 with systemic vasculitis) were randomized into three groups. Group 1 consisted of 18 patients with CDK (10 with stage III and 8 with stage IV). They received LPD (0.6 g/kg/day) with addition of essential keto/amino acids for 24-48 months. Group 2 of 18 CDK patients with the same stages received the same diet but greater amount of vegetable protein (highly purified soya protein) to 0.3 g/kg/day in highly energetic nutrient mixture. Group 3 - 10 CDK patients (7 with stage III and 3 with stage IV) received free diet. Group 1 and 2 patients received LPD irrespective of the nutrient status assessed basing on anthropometric and other data. Protein consumption and caloric value were estimated by 3-day food diary.
Results. Before diet therapy, out of 46 examinees nutrient status was abnormal in 45.7% patients. Both variants of LPD were well tolerated and nutrient status was corrected while the rate of nutritive disorders in group 3 increased 1.5-fold (from 40 to 60%) with progression of renal failure. Intake of LPD diet for at least a year reduced glomerular filtration rate inhibition, especially in addition of highly energetic mixture.
Conclusion. Early (predialysis) restriction of diet protein (0.6 g/kg/day) with addition of highly energetic mixture and essential keto/amino acids improves a nutritive status of CDK patients and inhibits GFR decline.

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