Contrast-inducible nephropathy in coronarography in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: risk factors, prognostic significance, prophylactic approaches

Abstract

Aim. To determine risk factors, prognostic implications and prophylaxis of contrast-inducible nephropathy (CIN) during coronarography (CG) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).
Material and methods. Records for 151 patients with type 2 DM and 50 non-diabetic patients examined with CG in A.N. Bakulev Research Center for Cardiovascular Surgery in 2000-2007 were analysed retrospectively. All the patients have undergone clinical examination including tests for blood serum creatinine before and after 48 hours after CG, standard ECG and echocardiography. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated by MDRD formula. Selective CG was made with application of contrast agent Omnipak-300 (iohexol).
Results. CIN after CG more frequently developed in diabetics than in non-diabetic patients matched for age, renal function, dose of contrast medium and hydration regime (40.4 and 16%, respectively; p < 0.002). Risk of CIN in patients with type 2 DM was associated with cardiac failure of NYHA class III-IV, anemia, dose of the contrast agent, intake of diuretic drugs before and after the procedure, multiple affection of the coronary vessels, necessity of intervention. Patients with type 2 DM and CIN showed more rapid decline of the renal function, more frequently developed severe cardiovascular events, had worse 1-year survival.
Conclusion. High probability of CIN and its prognostic significance in type 2 DM patients necessitates assessment of an individual risk for taking preventive measures during conduction of contrast diagnostic procedures.

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Copyright (c) 2009 Shamkhalova M.S., Zaytseva N.V., Kurumova K.O., Shestakova M.V., Deev A.D., Matskeplishvili S.T., Tugeeva E.F., Buziashvili Y.I., Shamkhalova M.S., Zaitseva N.V., Kurumova K.O., Shestakova M.V., Deev A.D., Matskeplishvili S.T., Tugeeva E.F., Buziashvili Y.I.

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