No 1 (2020)

Articles
XYLOTROPHIC BASIDIOMYCETES OF SMALL-LEAVED FORESTS OF THE KOSTROMA REGION
Maramokhin E.V.
Abstract
This paper provides an overview of the biology and species diversity of xylotrophic basidiomycetes, as well as the biotopic relationships of xylotroph mycobiota with phytocenoses. Ecological groups of these organisms are considered in connection with substrate specialization and their species similarity in birch and aspen small-leaved forests of different pharmacy. A brief assessment of the influence of the anthropogenic factor on the biological diversity of the represented group of organisms is given. For the first time, the Kostroma region is divided into southern, central, and northern parts to assess species diversity depending on weather, climate, and phytocenotic factors. The data on the study of changes in the degree of integration of mycocenoses of birch and aspen forests within the studied areas of the region are presented. In total, over 60 species of xylotrophic basidiomycetes were found in the small-leaved forests in the region, among which 38 species primarily affected birch forests and 40 species of pathogenic xylotrophic basidiomycetes have tropism for P. tremula. It was established that species belonging to the Coriolaseae family predominate in the species composition of wood-destroying mycobiota; they comprise about 27% of the total species composition in birch forests and about 24% of the species composition in aspen forests.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2020;(1):4-9
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LIFE FORMS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF LICHENS URBAN ECOSYSTEM OF THE CITY OF TIMASHEVSK KRASNODAR TERRITORY
Krivorotov S.B., Manilova O.Y.
Abstract
Lichens are an important component of phytocenosis since they take part in formation of plant community microclimate, inhabit areas hardly suitable for other organisms, secret acids which retard the growth of some plants, etc. The article presents the results of taxonomic, geographic and environmental analysis of lichen biota in Timashevsk, Krasnodar Krai, Russia. The urban ecosystem accomodates 51 lichen species which belong to 27 genera, 12 families, and 2 groups. Life forms of lichens were detected in urban ecosystem. One of the methods of atmospheric air quality assessment is based on the usage of species composition of lichen biota in the studied urban ecosystem, and on defining of sensitivity of species. The list of lichens for the whole urban ecosystem, as well as for its particular areas, helps provide a solid assessment of the condition of air basin in this area, and compare the air quality on the parts of the explored territory. Therefore, lichens can be used as a bioindicator for long-term surveillance of atmospheric environment in urbanized territories of the North-West Caucasus.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2020;(1):10-14
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THE ROLE OF ALLELOPATHIC INFLUENCE OF ACER NEGUNDO L. ON THE GROWTH OF HERBACEOUS PLANTS
Tsandekova O.L.
Abstract
The article analyzes the results of the influence of allelopathically active substances of plant litter and soil on the growth of herbaceous plants of the lower tier in various phytogenic zones of the maple ash-leaved. As model objects the seeds of the Melilotus officinalis and Poa pratensis were used. The study of the allelopathic effect of maple ash-leaved litter was carried out by bioassay, the soil - by experiment. In early July the seeds of grassy plants were sown in containers with soil selected under A. negundo plantations in transformed plant communities. Soil samples were taken in the subcrown and near-ground zones of the studied trees. The outer zone of single trees was chosen as a control. The biometric indicators of the test objects under study were calculated on the basis of determining the height and mass of the plants. For studies of growth parameters, a sample of ten plants was used in triplicate from each site studied. According to the results of the experiments, it was revealed that the highest rates of germination energy and seed germination in the test areas are in the M. officinalis , compared to P. pratensis . The allelopathically active substances contained in the litter and soil of A. negundo had a positive effect on the germination of the studied plants, especially in the near-front zone. Consequently, these species possess allelopathic resistance to the effects of сolin elder maple and have a positive reaction to its phytogenic zones. Probably, M. officinalis and P. pratensis, which have ecological plasticity and adaptability to living in conditions of the natural range, are determined not only by the allelopathic effect of maple root excretions, but, to a greater extent, by environmental factors in transformed plant communities. Experimental data can be used in assessing the state of the ground cover and the structure of the phytocenosis.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2020;(1):15-18
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ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF MEDICINAL VEGETABLE RAW MATERIALS OF THE VORONEZH REGION ON THE EXAMPLE OF FLOWERS OF A TANSY ORDINARY
Dyakova N.A.
Abstract
The article addresses to the problems of contamination by heavy metals of herbal substances in Voronezh Oblast, Russia. The object of the study was Tanacetum Vulgare gathered in urban and agro-ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic impact. The research was conducted by atomic absorption spectrophotometric method, using the MGA-915MD atomic absorption spectrometer in accordance with pharmacopoeia method. The study gave consideration to 51 samples of Tanacetum Vulgare contaminated by heavy metals (plumbum, mercury, cadmium, nickel, copper, zinc, cobalt, chromium) and arsenic. All samples meet the existing requirements, specified in reference documentation, in regards to norms of contained heavy metals (plumbum, cadmium, mercury) and aresnic. Comparing the data on the content of heavy metals in top soil of the region and the content of these elements in Tanacetum Vulgare blossoms, it can be argued that there exist some substantial physiological barriers preventing the plants from accumulation of ecotoxicants in their reproductive organs. It is most noticeable for such elements as plumbum, mercury, cadmium, cobalt and chromium. It appears that Tanacetum Vulgare is able to selectively absorb some heavy metals that penetrate into zymophore (e.g., copper and zinc) provided that their environmental content is below vital level. On the contrary, when the content of such elements in top soil was considerable, the plant blocked physiologically their penetration into the blossoms. Thereunder, it is fair to assume for Tanacetum Vulgare that, as a result of technological impact, the edaphotype forms and adapts to such environmental conditions. Tanacetum Vulgare blossoms accumulate toxic elements from top soil inconsiderably, which is important for procurement planning and assessment of herbal substances quality.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2020;(1):19-26
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FEATURES OF THE CULTIVATION OF BAMBOO (BAMBUSA SCHREB.) ON THE SOUTHERN COAST OF CRIMEA
Maksimov A.P., Trikoz N.N., Kovalev M.S.
Abstract
For the first time, a summary of long-term production experience in the cultivation of bamboo in the Crimea and the Caucasus was carried out. Based on the study of the biology and ecology of bamboo, recommendations were given on their use in gardening in southern Russia and, above all, on the Southern Coast of Crimea and on the Caucasian Riviera. Winter hardiness of bamboos largely depends on soil and microclimatic conditions. Improper planting care can also lead to a decrease in the frost resistance of individuals. The best for the culture of bamboo are flat areas along the banks of rivers and streams. It is recommended to lay windbreaks on windy places. In areas with a pronounced hilly terrain, eastern and northern slopes of steepness up to 15-20° can be considered favorable for bamboos, as well as beams and damp ravines where there is no stagnation of cold air. Bamboos grow and develop best on rich and well-drained loamy soils with a neutral environment. On alkaline and very acidic soils, as well as marshy (with stagnant moisture) and stony patches, bamboo grows poorly. Soil types formed on the alluvium of river sediments as well as on the deluvium of the soil and hill sections can be considered the best for bamboos. By the nature of flowering and fruiting, bamboos are divided into 3 groups: 1 - monocarpic (species of the genera Bambusa , Dendrocalamus , Thamnocalamus , etc.); 2 - polycarpic (species of the genera Sasa , Pseudosasa , etc.); 3 - transitional between them (species of the genera Phyllostachys , Semiarundinaria ). Bamboos are propagated by seeds and separation of rhizomes. Recommendations are given on the creation, maintenance, cultivation and protection of bamboos against pests and fungal diseases on the Southern Coast of Crimea and on the Caucasian Riviera.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2020;(1):26-33
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STRUCTURE OF THE VEGETATIVE COVER OF THE NORTH-EASTERN PART OF TUVA
Sambuu A.D., Ajunova О.D., Chupikova S.A.
Abstract
The article presents the study of vegetation cover in the Northeast of Tuva. The surveillance research was conducted in summer season from 2009 to 2017. It was revealed that nearly all altitudinal vegetation belts common to the Mountains of Southern Siberia are widespread in the studied area. The vegetation cover that creates biological diversity and conditions for its preservation, is peculiar for its geological history (relatively young site), specific landscape (combination of highlands and lowlands), climatic and landscape mosaic, low impact of anthropogenic activities. The vegetation cover conforms with the laws of altitudinal zonation, highland belts and mountain taiga belts. The prevailing type of vegetation is mountain taiga. In the result of conducted research, a series of electronic large-scale maps were created (universal map and evaluation map) with the help of ArcView GIS software. Both traditional methods and modern mapping techniques were used for vegetation communities, based on forest surveying data as well as on author’s filed research records. The vegetation map fragment is provided and the area’s landscape structure is described. Vegetation cover in the area under research is characterized by originality due to historical and environmental conditions, as well as proximity of the mountains. Currently, this is one of the few Siberian areas where anthropogenic activity is very limited. As of landscape peculiarities, the territory is remarkable for inhomogenuity of its landscape and environment which in its turn results in a wide typological variety of vegetation and considerable contrast of vegetation cover. In this regard, the territory of these mountain ridges is a model region to study historical development of vegetation cover in the mountains of the Southern Siberia.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2020;(1):33-41
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REFINEMENT OF CONIFER GROWTH MODELS BASED ON TREE-RING CHRONOLOGIES OF THE NORTH OF WESTERN SIBERIA
Tsibulsky V.R., Solovyev I.G., Govorkov D.A.
Abstract
The subject of this research is conifer growth model based on time-series of annual rings width. The article addresses processing of data and model update in respect of forest dendrology. The purpose of study is to update the conifer growth model due to expansion of time-series of tree-rings width in regards to conifer forests in Western Siberia. The method represents expansion of time-series due to the fact that some growth phases had not been taken into account. When measurements were taken at the height of 1.3 meters, the following phases were not considered: seedling, juvenile, immature and beginning of virginile phase. The authors carried out examination of a number of scans and core samples, as well as time-series received by other scientists and which are contained in the International Tree-Ring Data Bank. Based on the results of field studies, the authors recommend to add some zeroes to the beginning of time-series within the range of 10-15 years for pine-trees in the south of Western Siberia, depending on growth conditions; the range of 15-30 years in the north for larch-trees and pine-trees depending on soil and climate conditions and latitude. The sequence of data pre-processing operations for time-series, received by means of core sampling, is as follows: averaging out of radius gain in 2 (3) mutually perpendicular directions for one specimen, graphing of radius gain curve, adding to the beginning of time-series, its normalization, approximation by specified growth function. It is possible to build area growth function for the scans. For averaging out a group of model trees, the sequence of operations is as follows: synchronization of time-series by cross-correlation method, approximation by specified growth function. Methods and results of studies can be applied in forest sectors and oil and gas industries for monitoring of forest health conditions. The proposed method of curve growth model update will allow to define more precisely time intervals for efficient forest exploitation as well as to reconstruct digital models of conifer populations in the north of Western Siberia.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2020;(1):41-48
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THE INFLUENCE OF SILICON DIOXIDE «KOVELOS-SORB» ON GROWTH CHARACHTERISTICS OF RHODODENDRON ROSEUM (LOISEL.) REHDER CULTIVATED IN VITRO
Nemtsova Y.V., Harin A.V., Razlugo I.A.
Abstract
The article reveals a stimulating effect of synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide on growth parameters Rhododendron roseum (Loisel.) Rehder, propagating itself in vitro . The purpose of this study was to identify the optimum composition of culture medium on the basis of amorphous silica ‘Kovelos-Sorb’, used for clonal micropropagation of rhododendrons. It was established that it is preferable to add to Anderson culture medium 100 mg/L of amorphous silicon dioxide, which stimulated the growth of mericlone germs Rhododendron roseum (Loisel.) Rehder. In order to stimulate propagation and for receiving a vast amount of propagating material, it was optimal to use Anderson medium which contained 50 mg/L of amorphous silicon dioxide. For establishment of regenerative plants Rhododendron roseum (Loisel.) Rehder in vitro, it was optimal to use Anderson medium which contained synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide in amounts of 50-150 mg/L combined with indoleacetic acid in amounts of 1.5 mg/L.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2020;(1):48-55
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ACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS IN THE LEAVES OF SORBUS AUCUPARIA L. IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT (ON THE EXAMPIE OF ORENBURG)
Fedorova D.G.
Abstract
In urban areas, trees play an essential role to cleanse the airborne toxic pollution in the environment. The species Sorbus aucuparia L. was studied as a biological indicator of toxic heavy metals pollution in the city of Orenburg, Russia. The impact of airborne pollution was assessed by the evaluation of morphometric parameters and the chemical analysis of leaves. The rowan leaves were collected in Orenburg in areas exposed to anthropogenic intervention of various degree. The concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and Fe in leaf samples were compared. It was found that the concentration of heavy metals in plants growing in the city is higher than in the control samples and decreases in the order Cd ˃ Cu ˃ Pb ˃ Zn ˃ Fe. The biological monitoring can be used to study environmental pollution as an environmentally sustainable tool for environmental management in urban areas.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2020;(1):55-60
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EFFECTS OF LIGNOHUMATE ON THE PHYTOTOXICITY OF PHOSPHORUS-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS (MODEL EXPERIMENTS)
Ogorodnikova S.Y.
Abstract
In conditions of chemical pollution, it is relevant to enhance the resistance of plants with substances that have a protective action. The effect of humic substance Lignohumate on the phytotoxic properties of phosphorus-containing compounds methylphosphonic acid (MPA) and sodium pyrophosphate (SPP) was studied in model experiments. Lignohumate was tested at three concentrations (0.1, 0.5, and 1 g/L) on Hordeum distichum L. of the Novichok variety. The test functions were such indicators as the germinating and sprouting ability of seeds, the growth and biomass accumulation of seedlings, and the inhibition effect. Lignohumate in the studied concentrations did not affect germination of the barley seeds, but it stimulated growth of the barley seedlings. In the conditions of MPA pollution (0.01 mol/L), Lignohumate exerted a protective effect on the plants, and the highest concentration of humic preparation (1 g/L) was the most effective. In the experiments with SPP (0.01 mol/L), Lignohumate stimulated germination the barley seeds but it did not reduce the growth inhibitory effect of SPP. The combined exposure to the studied pollutants negatively affected growth and accumulation of biomass by the barley roots. The introduction of Lignohumate weakened the combined effect but could not completely countervail it. The calculation of inhibition effect showed that the phytotoxicity of phosphorus-containing substances reduced in the order MPA (without buffer) - SPP - MPA (with buffer) - MPA+SPP . The introduction of Lignohumate to the growth medium was the most effective in experiments with low-toxic substances.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2020;(1):60-68
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EXPERIENCE IN THE STUDY OF THE DURATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF OIL POLLUTION ON THE CHARACTERISTIC OF BIOELECTRIC RESISTANCE OF BIRCH (BETULA PENDULA ROTH)
Kurilo Y.A., Donets E.V., Grigoriev A.I.
Abstract
The study of bioelectric resistance (impedance) of woody plants by electrometric method under the influence of adverse factors, including oil sludge, is one of the adequate methodological approaches to assessing the state of forest biogeocenoses. The aim of the study is to study the peculiarities of the influ-ence of oil sludge pollution of soils on the duration of changes in the bioelectric resistance of the precam-bial tissue complex of birch trunks. The object of the study is the trees of the hanging birch (Betula pendu-la Roth.) growing in the basin of buffer ponds of JSC «Gazpromneft - ONPZ» (Omsk). The research area is the Central forest-steppe of the South of Western Siberia. The results of the studies were processed by standard methods of variational statistics, correla-tion, regression and variance one-factor analysis using the package Statistica 10. Comparisons of experience variants were carried out according to student and Fisher criteria. The dependence of elec-trical resistance of birch trunk PCT (precompiling complex tissues) on the level of oil sludge pollution of soils was studied. A recommendation for rapid assessment of the condition of birch trees in the con-ditions of oil sludge pollution by electrometric meth-od was developed. According to the results of our long-term studies, it can be noted that the duration of a significant negative impact of oil sludge on the electrical resistance precompiling complex tissues of birch trees in the forest-steppe zone of Western Sibe-ria is manifested within six years, and in the seventh year these differences are not reliable and already in the ninth year-these differences disappear (τfact > τ0.5). The results obtained can be used in screening studies of forest biogeocenoses and in the planning and or-ganization of bioreculture activities on the territory of sanitary protection zones of oil refineries and in areas of oil production and oil transportation.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2020;(1):68-74
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RARE MOSSES OF THE KONDINSKIE LAKES NATURAL PARK NAMED AFTER L. F. STASHKEVICH
Lapshina Y.D., Korotkikh N.N., Bespalova T.L.
Abstract
The moss flora of the Kondinskie Lakes Natural Park named after L.F. Stashkevich (Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug - Yugra, Russia) currently in-cludes 114 species. Fifty-four species (47.4%) are rare for the natural park, of which eleven species, such as Dichelyma capillaceum, Dicranum septen-trionale, Sphagnum annulatum, S. mirum, S. subfulvum, S. tenellum, are rare for the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug and Western Siberia. The phytocenotic association and the frequency of oc-currence of the studied species was analyzed. The paper discusses the reasons for the high proportion of rare mosses in the park’s brioflora and the fea-tures of their distribution over the territory of the park.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2020;(1):74-80
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AN ASSESSMENT OF DISTURBANCE EFFECTS ON PLANT COVER OF NUMTO NATURAL PARK (KHANTY-MANSIYSK AUTONOMOUS OKRUG - UGRA)
Moskovchenko D.V., Aref’ev S.P., Glazunov V.A., Filippov I.V.
Abstract
The Numto Natural Park, Khanty-Mansi Autono-mous Okrug - Yugra, Russia, has recently attracted the attention of environmental organizations due to oil extraction operations in its territory. This paper presents the study of the vegetation cover dynamics and the assessment of natural and anthropogenic disturbances of Numto’s ecosystems. Due to the development of oil deposits, more than 60 adventitious plant species arrived to the park, and the synan-thropization index reached 26.4%. Tree rings showed the predominant influence of the climatic and pyrogenic components on the growth of trees. The technogenic impact that had occurred in the 1990s gave a spasmodic increase in cedar growth in the disturbed areas in the form of abnormal hard streaks. Later on, the impact of technogenic factors on the wood growth waned. Satellite imagery helped to determine changes in the vegetation cover. From 2011 to 2018, the area of disturbed sites doubled while the length of infield roads and pipelines increased by 5.7 times. The area of burnt fire sites increased manifold; how-ever, fires occurred at a considerable distance from the oil extraction sites and were of natural origin. Currently, the disturbed ecosystems, including burnt fire sites and fire-damaged ecosystems, occupy 2.1% of the oil deposits area, and the area of pyrogenic disturbances is larger than the area of technogenic ones. Compared to the oil and gas fields in the adjacent areas, the level of disturbance in the Numto Natural Park can be considered low. Since deer pastures were not disturbed by the oil extraction operations, the traditional nature management remains possible. Further oil field development requires ongoing monitoring of the ecosystem condition.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2020;(1):81-89
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BEETLES OF THE FAMILY HISTERIDAE (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA) OF TYUMEN PROVINCE AND KHANTY-MANSIYSK AUTONOMOUS AREA - YUGRA
Kozminykh V.O.
Abstract
The paper below provides an overview of current studies with discussion on the composition of beetles, which relate to the family Histeridae (Insecta: Coleoptera) originating from Tyumen Province and Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Area - Yugra. The author summarizes studies of clown beetles, carried out over the whole period of research, presents reference base (16 references), original data and actual evidence on the distribution of beetles over the foregoing territories. The family Histeridae, inhabiting Tyumen Province and Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Area - Yugra, consists of 29 species from 3 subfamilies (2 species of Abraeinae, 18 species of Histerinae, 9 species of Saprininae), including 28 species registered in Tyumen Province and 8 species registered in Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Area - Yugra. The paper records Hypocaccus rufipes (Kugelann, 1792) in West Siberia, particularly in Tyumen Region (Tobolsk), and indicates 4 Histeridae species in the city of Tyumen: Hister bissexstriatus (Fabricius, 1801); Margarinotus purpurascens (Herbst, 1791); M. ventralis (Marseul, 1854); and Saprinus aeneus (Fabricius, 1775).
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2020;(1):90-98
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ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE LESSER WHITE-FRONTED GOOSE MIGRATION STOPS IN THE SURGUT DISTRICT OF THE KHANTY-MANSIYSK AUTONOMOUS OKRUG - UGRA AND THE PROBLEM OF SPECIES CONSERVATION
Emtsev A.A., Porgunyov A.V.
Abstract
The analysis of the photographs sent by the hunters from Sytomino village, Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug - Ugra, together with the further survey detected the place of migration stops of Lesser White-fronted Geese in the Middle Ob valley. The birds were staying at the small lake 3.5 km east of the village. On September 12, 2011, one wounded individual was found near the lake at the complex raised bog 9.5 km southwest of the city of Lyantor. Several ways can be suggested by us to save flying Lesser White-fronted Geese and other species of vulnerable animals at the territory of the autonomous okrug. This will include the following measures to take: an obligatory exam for hunters to be able to identify some species of the regional fauna; large penalties for illegal hunting, more active propaganda of respect for nature and educational work and developing hunting culture. The article also covers economic and organizational issues.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2020;(1):98-103
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ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE ACTION OF SELENIUM IN A SOIL-PLANT SYSTEM IN THE CONDITIONS OF WESTERN SIBERIA
Aleksandrovskaia E.I., Sindireva A.V., Ieronova V.V.
Abstract
Selenium plays an important antioxidant role in a living organism. At the same time, we often observe a deficit of selenium in natural environmental locations. Therefore, it is of great importance to elaborate and assess methods for the most efficient and environmentally safe intake of the necessary amount of this element in the human body with the consumption of vegetable food, among others. In this respect, the techniques of enriching plants with this microelement are promising. These techniques include additional introduction of selenium compounds into the soil and non-root intake. Our research consisted of an environmental assessment of the effect of selenium on biometric parameters, crop yield, and quality of spring wheat plants. Aziiev soft spring wheat, selenium microelement, meadow chernozemic soil were the objects of our study. It was determined that Se has a predominantly stimulating effect on the growth and development of wheat plants and their crop yield. A direct correlation between an increase in the applied doses of selenium and an increase in its content in wheat grain was identified. The results of our study can be applied for the development of appropriate methods for the use of selenium-containing micro fertilizers in certain environmental conditions.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2020;(1):104-110
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ASSESSMENT OF AIR POLLUTION IN THE CITIES OF PERM REGION
Meshchurova Т.А.
Abstract
The chemicals emitted from stationary and mobile sources into the air in cities have a harmful effect on the population, contributing to the growth of morbidity and mortality and disturbing the natural environment. In Perm Krai, Russia, industrial facilities discharge about 360 chemicals into the air. The airborne pollution mostly comes from chemical industry, oil and minerals extraction, metallurgical industry, power generation, and transport. This study focused on the assessment of airborne pollution in the cities of Perm Krai. The study used data of the Perm Center for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring, published in annual environmental reports. It was found that the main pollutant emissions from stationary sources are liquid and gaseous substances. The most common emission components are hydrocarbons coming from pipeline transportation facilities. The second most common substance is carbon monoxide emitted by combustion of various fuels. Gross pollutant emissions tended to increase from 2014 to 2018, with a steady growth of emissions from mobile sources. Airborne pollution was assessed by the comprehensive air quality index, taking into account several substances that make the largest contribution to airborne pollution (this year). The monitoring results from Berezniki, Gubakha, Krasnokamsk, Lysva, Perm, Solikamsk and Tchaikovsky were analyzed. The paper presents the dynamics of air quality index in these cities from 2008 to 2018. The highest index value (‘very high’) was observed in Solikamsk in 2012; the lowest index value, in Tchaikovsky. The airborne pollution in these cities showed a tendency to decrease over the past six years, possibly, due to the use of more advanced emissions cleaning technologies and the decommissioning of some industrial facilities. The cities that have large industrial companies, such as Perm, Berezniki, Lysva and Solikamsk, experience the greatest environmental burden from stationary sources. Emissions of volatile organic compounds and sulfur dioxide from stationary sources increased from 2016 to 2018, although neither ‘high’, nor ‘very high’ pollution was observed in the cities of Perm Krai from 2013 to 2018.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2020;(1):110-119
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ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOIL QUALITY OF ROADSIDE AREAS USED FOR GROWING CROPS
Gаritskaya M.Y., Kholodilina T.N., Baranova M.S.
Abstract
This paper presents data on the content of heavy metals in the road-side soils (transport lands) along the Orenburg-Orsk motorway and the Saraktash-Kuvandyk motorway in Orenburg Region, Russia. The objects of the study were two agricultural fields (wheat and barley) located between the motorway and the forest shelterbelt. The purpose of the study was to find the total content and the active form of heavy metals in the studied soils, to assess their quality by the degree of ecological adversity, and to determine the possibility of using them for cultivating crops. The comprehensive chemical pollution indicator (CCPI) and the ecotoxicological soil quality indicator (ESQI) were used to assess the ecological condition of the studied fields. The soil samples were tested to find the content of cadmium, zinc, lead, manganese, iron, copper, chromium, cobalt, and nickel. Cadmium had the highest active form percentage (9-17%) in the total heavy metal content in soils, sampled along the Saraktash-Kuvandyk motorway, while lead content was the highest (5.7-11.5%) in samples collected along the Orenburg-Orsk motorway. According to the CCPI and other established criteria, the entire territory along the motorways is in the critical environmental condition (16 < CCPI < 32), and the territory six meters away from the Orenburg-Orsk motorway is in the condition of environmental emergency (32 < CCPI < 128). The ESQI data was analyzed differentially for substances of various hazard classes. As for hazard class I metals, the environmental emergency has already developed throughout the territory under study, except for the areas located six and sixteen meters from the Orenburg-Orsk motorway that are in the state of environmental disaster. Therefore, the analysis of the ecological state of the studied road-side areas showed that, by the total content of toxic hazard class I metals, they can be categorized as environmental emergency and environmental disaster zones, and crops, used for producing foodstuff and livestock feed, must not be cultivated in these fields.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2020;(1):119-126
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HEAVY METAL (Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd) CONCENTRATION IN SOILS OF TYUMEN
Petukhov A.S., Kremleva T.A., Khritokhin N.A., Petukhova G.A., Kaidunova P.I.
Abstract
Toxic heavy metals contaminating soil get accumulated by plants, cause degradation of plant communities, and eventually penetrate human bodies with food. Therefore, it is urgent to investigate the content of heavy metal in soils in urban areas. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentration of Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Cd in soils of Tyumen. Top soil was sampled at the semi-clean control site near a highway, and at sites near metallurgical, motor-building, oil-refining and battery-manufacturing facilities in Tyumen, Russia. The concentration of active and acid-soluble forms of heavy metals was determined by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry. All the soil samples from urban areas were polluted with Fe. The samples collected near the battery manufactory and the metallurgical plant were contaminated with Pb and Zn, respectively, with maximum allowable concentration exceeded. The Cu, Mn and Zn content in most soil samples was higher than that in the control sample. The Cd content in all samples was at the lower limit of detection. The average percentages of active forms of Mn and Zn in soils were the highest among all the studied metals. The most intense accumulation of all heavy metals was observed near the battery manufactory and the metallurgical plant. The obtained results can be useful for environmental monitoring in Tyumen.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2020;(1):127-134
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PINUS ELDARICA MEDW. AS INDICATOR OF VEHICULAR POLLUTION
Mamedova A.O., Farzalieva N.M.
Abstract
This paper presents a study of developmental stability of Pinus eldarica Medw. in conditions of airborne traffic pollution. The study has been performed over the period of 3 years (from 2017 to 2019) in the Absheron Peninsula, Azerbaijan. The purpose of the study was to assess the morphophysiological changes in the species Pinus eldarica Medw. Exposed to pollution from motor vehicles and thus identify the bioindicator properties of pine trees. The study used morphological, physiological and statistical methods. The indicating data on fluctuating asymmetry and necrosis in Pinus eldarica Medw. was obtained in areas with varying degree of atmospheric pollution. Based on these data, ecological zoning was carried out using GIS technologies, and an environmental map of the studied territories was compiled. Species Pinus eldaric a Medw. can be used as a phytometer for the purpose of environmental monitoring.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2020;(1):134-139
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