Nutritional support for patients with chronic kidney disease at pre-dialysis stages

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Abstract


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by poor outcomes, an increasing frequency of new cases, the need for expensive method of renal replacement therapy at the terminal stage. The main task facing the doctor is slowing the progression of CKD and delay the start of dialysis by applying the nephroprotective strategy, of which diet therapy is an essential part. The key components of the diet for CKD patients are reducing sodium intake to 2.3 g per day in order to improve control of blood pressure (BP), dietary protein restriction adequate to renal function – from 0.8 to 0.3 g/kg of body weight per day combined with the prescribing of ketoanalogues of essential amino acids, hyperglycemia control. With the progression of CKD, the main objectives of the diet therapy are the prevention/correction of complications: protein-energy waisting, metabolic acidosis, ensuring sufficient calories, corresponding to the body’s energy expenditures (30–35 kcal/kg of body weight per day), limiting phosphate intake to 0.8–1 g a day, restriction of food potassium. Low-protein diet in combination with ketoanalogues of amino acids, regular monitoring and correction of the nutritional status of patients at the pre-dialysis stages of CKD is an effective and safe method of nephroprotection, which allows delaying the start of dialysis.


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About the authors

Alexandra V. Kuzmina

European Medical Center

Author for correspondence.
Email: alysk@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3913-0366

Russian Federation, Moscow

врач терапевт, нефролог

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