Modern view on treatment of membranous nephropathy

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Abstract


Membranous nephropathy (MN) is the most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults. Since the moment of animal model creation and the recognition of podocytes damage as a key mechanism of MN development, the identification of antigens, first of all the phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R), and the development of methods of PLA2R autoantibodies detection and its monitoring opened a new era in the idiopathic MN (iMN) diagnosis, treatment and prognosis evaluation. MN continues to be actively studied in the new millennium, since a number of aspects of its pathogenesis still need to be clarified, and there is still no clear opinion on the iMN treatment optimal approach.

Comprehensive clinical and serological assessment of patients with iMN can be the key to individual choice of treatment protocols. In patients with aPLA2R-positive iMN, the predictor of disease remission is the aPLA2R titer decrease or aPLA2R disappearance in the blood serum, and disease relapse is associated with the aPLA2R appearance ore increase of aPLA2R titer in the circulation. Studies which were conducted by today (GEMRITUX, MENTOR, STARMEN, NICE, etc.) confirmed the acceptable safety profile and effectiveness of iMN therapy by anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (rituximab): more than half of of iMN patients had remission of nephrotic syndrome or proteinuria decrease, remissions in anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies treated patients were longer compared to traditional therapy. The obtained data allows us to consider rituximab and anti-CD20 antibody therapy of a new generation not only as an alternative to the more toxic treatment with cyclophosphane and calcineurin inhibitors, but as an independent promising direction of therapy for patients with IMN, which completely changes the paradigm of treatment of this glomerulopathy.


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About the authors

Irina N. Bobkova

Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University)

Email: kamyshova-es@yandex.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8007-5680

Russian Federation, Moscow

д.м.н., проф. каф. внутренних, профессиональных болезней и ревматологии

Elena S. Kamyshova

Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University)

Author for correspondence.
Email: kamyshova-es@yandex.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1823-0125

Russian Federation, Moscow

к.м.н., доц. каф. внутренних, профессиональных болезней и ревматологии

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