The concurrence of kidney and liver dysfunctions in decompensated heart failure

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Aim. To study the incidence, pattern, and predictive factors of concurrent kidney and liver dysfunctions in patients with decompensated heart failure (HF). Subjects and methods. The kidney and liver function indicators were estimated in 322 patients aged 69.5±10.6 years with decompensated HF (hypertension in 87%, myocardial infarction in 57%, atrial fibrillation in 65%, chronic kidney disease in 39%, type 2 diabetes in 42%, a left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) of 38±13%, EF <35% 39%, NYHA Functional Class IV in 56%). Cardiohepatic syndrome (CHS) was diagnosed if at least one indicator of liver function was increased; acute kidney injury (AKI) was diagnosed using the KDIGO criteria. Results. AKI and CHS had been previously diagnosed in 60 (18.6%) and 274 (85.1%) patients, respectively. Among the patients with signs of kidney and/or liver dysfunction, the incidence of isolated CHS, concurrent AKI and CHS, and isolated AKI was 78.4, 20.1, and 1.5%, respectively. The patients with concurrent kidney and liver dysfunctions were observed to have more profound systemic hemodynamic changes (hypoperfusion and congestion). The risk of concurrent AKI and CHS increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <45 ml/min/1.73 m2, admission systolic blood pressure <110 mm Hg, needs for vasopressors, hydropericardium, and EF <35%. The concurrence of AKI and CHS was associated with longer hospital stay (15.7±6.5 and 13.5±4.8 days, respectively; p<0.05). Conclusion. The incidence of concurrent AKI and CHS in patients with decompensated HF is 20.1%. Concurrent kidney and liver dysfunctions is associated with more obvious signs of hypoperfusion and congestion and characterized by worse prognosis.


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