Severe asthma: Characteristics of patients in clinical practice


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Aim. To provide clinical characteristics of severe asthma (SA) patients encountered in clinical practice. Subjects and methods. A cross-sectional cohort study was performed to cover 119 outpatients aged 22—82 years. SA was diagnosed according to the ERS/ATS criteria (2014). Spirometry and bronchodilator reversibility testing were carried out; fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) was measured; inhalant allergen hypersensitivity (skin prick and blood specific IgE testing) and peripheral blood eosinophil counts were estimated. Asthma control and asthma-related quality of life were assessed. Results. 77% of the patients were found to have allergic asthma; in this case, house dust mites were leading allergens in the spectrum of sensitization. 82% of the patients were observed to have uncontrolled asthma and 76% had incompletely reversible bronchial obstruction. The airway eosinophilic inflammation markers (FeNO more than 25 ppb and eosinophil counts of more than 150 cells/µ) were elevated in 63% of the patients. Good compliance was noted in 61% of the patients. There were 27% of active smokers who had lower lung function and FeNO levels. The smokers showed a low compliance with inhaled glucocorticosteroid treatment. SA was concurrent with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 37% of the cases. Conclusion. SA is a heterogeneous disease. Traditional treatment is not always effective, as many patients, despite their treatment, have uncontrolled SA and continuously increased markers of airways eosinophilic inflammation. Monoclonal antibody therapy may promote success in treating this cohort of patients.

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Copyright (c) 2015 Sergeeva G.R., Emelyanov A.V., Korovina O.V., Znakhurenko A.A., Leshenkova E.V., Kozyreva L.V., Asatiani N.

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