The concept of risk factors in assessing the impact of smoking on an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Cite item

Full Text


Aim. By using the risk concept, to determine a quantitative relationship between smoking in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the development of an exacerbation. Subjects and methods. Case history data were studied in 166 patients admitted for a COPD exacerbation in 2009 to 2012. There were 2 exacerbations for a year or longer. The patients were divided into 2 groups: smokers (n=110) and nonsmokers (n=56). The concept for estimating the risks was based on the calculation of absolute risk in the exposed and unexposed groups, attributable risk, relative risk, and population attributable risk and on the determination of standard errors for each type of risk and confidence interval. Results. The methodological aspects of determining the quantitative relationship between smoking in patients with COPD and the development of its exacerbations (twice or more per year) were considered on the basis of the statistical concept of risk factors. A risk factor concept- based analysis has shown that the impact of smoking is directly related to the worsening of COPD. The frequency of exacerbations is 71.8% in the group of smoking patients and 32.1% in that of nonsmoking patients; the risk factor increases the likelihood of this event by 39.7%. Conclusion. Smoking leads to a 2.2-fold increase in the frequency of COPD exacerbations. The potential hazard index was 2.5.


  1. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2013. Available from:
  2. Глобальная стратегия диагностики, лечения и профилактики хронической обструктивной болезни легких (пересмотр 2011) г. Пер. с англ. Под ред. А.С. Белевского. М: Российское респираторное общество 2012; 80.
  3. Респираторная медицина. Руководство. Под ред. А.Г. Чучалина. ГОЭТАР-Медиа 2007.
  4. Anthonisen N.R., Connett J.E., Murray R.P. For the Lung Health Study Research Group. Smoking and lung function of Lung Health Study participants after 11 years. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002; 166: 675—679.
  5. Чучалин А.Г. Система оксиданты и антиоксидaнты и пути коррекции. Пульмонология 2004; 4: 111—115.
  6. Соодаева С.К. Роль свободнорадикального окисления в патогенезе ХОБЛ. Атмосфера. Пульмонол и аллергол 2000; 5: 27—31.
  7. Rytila P., Rehn T., Ilumets H. et al. Increased oxidative stress in asymptomatic current chronic smokers and GOLD stage COPD. Respir Res 2006; 28: 69.
  8. Yigla M., Berkovich Y., Nagler R.M. Oxidative stress indices in COPD — Bronchoalveolar lavage and salivary analysis. Arch Oral Biol 2007; 52 (1): 36—43.

Copyright (c) 2015 Consilium Medicum

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Address of the Editorial Office:

  • Novij Zykovskij proezd, 3, 40, Moscow, 125167

Correspondence address:

  • Alabyan Street, 13/1, Moscow, 127055, Russian Federation

Managing Editor:

  • Tel.: +7 (926) 905-41-26
  • E-mail:


© 2018-2021 "Consilium Medicum" Publishing house

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies