Refractory GERD is the preservation of typical symptoms of the disease and/or incomplete healing of the esophageal mucosa against the background of taking a standard dose of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) once a day for 8 weeks. The reasons for the lack of response to the treatment are divided into related to the patient, related to therapy, and not related to GERD. Diagnostic approaches include x-ray examination of the esophagus and stomach, endoscopy with biopsy, 24-hour Impedance-pH monitoring, esophageal manometry. Depending on the reasons for the lack of response to the therapy, treatment may include lifestyle changes, doubling the dose of PPI, replacing PPI with another, adding H2-receptor antagonists, prokinetics, antacids, alginates and adsorbents. If conservative treatment is ineffective, it is possible to consider alternative methods, such as surgical treatment.
Refractory GERD is a serious clinical problem. The absence of an answer to 8-week therapy with PPI requires a thorough differential diagnosis using additional examination methods. The identification of the causes of refractory to the therapy allows to optimize the approaches to its overcoming and to choose the optimal treatment.
Keywords: gastroesophageal reflux disease, refractory symptoms, proton pump inhibitors
About the AuthorV.T. Ivashkin 1 , I.V. Maev 2 , A.S. Trukhmanov 1 , D.E. Rumyantseva 1
1 I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation (Sechenov University), Moscow, Russia
2 A.I. Yevdokimov Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry, Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow, Russia